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Table 4 Socio-economic factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

From: Prevalence and risk factors of helicobacter pylori in Turkey: a nationally-representative, cross-sectional, screening with the 13C-Urea breath test

Socio-economic Factors Hp positive Hp negative   
  n (%)* n (%)* Total p
Education (n = 4577)       
  No education 747 (82.6) 163 (17.4) 910 0.000
  Primary complete 1801 (86.0) 276 (14.0) 2077  
  Secondary complete 355 (85.2) 59 (14.8) 414  
  High school + 913 (75.4) 263 (24.6) 1176  
Social security** (n = 4573)       
  SSK 1266 (83.9) 228 (16.1) 1494 0.000
  Emekli sandigi 431 (74.5) 139 (25.5) 570  
  BAG-KUR 546 (78.5) 148 (21.5) 694  
  Green Card 324 (87.2) 42 (12.8) 366  
  Private/foreign 21 (63.9) 10 (36.1) 31  
  None 1223 (85.4) 195 (14.6) 1418  
Housing tenure (n = 4597)       
  Owned by a household member 2761 (81.6) 583 (18.4) 3344 0.05
  Rented 762 (84.5) 134 (15.5) 896  
  Lodging/no money paid 306 (85.3) 51 (14.7) 357  
Occupation (n = 4503)       
  Agriculture & animal husbandry 516 (86.0) 83 (14.0) 599 0.000
  Industry 228 (86.0) 35 (14.0) 263  
  Construction 111 (92.7) 9 (7.3) 120  
  Service 360 (78.7) 87 (21.3) 447  
  Housewife/retired/unemployed 522 (78.7) 120 (21.3) 642  
  Other 2021 (82.9) 411 (17.1) 2432  
Household population       
  1–3 person/home 1000 (79.3) 250 (20.7) 1250 0.000
  4–5 person/home 1592 (81.4) 334 (18.6) 1926  
  6 + person/home 1260 (87.3) 186 (12.7) 1446  
Rooms for sleeping (n = 4575)       
  1–2 2354 (82.2) 482 (17.8) 2836 0.06
  3–4 1382 (82.5) 277 (17.5) 1659  
  5 + 73 (93.0) 7 (7.0) 80  
Source of the drinking water (n = 4594)       
  Piped water (in house/garden/outside) 2342 (83.6) 445 (16.4) 2787 0.00
  Spring/public fountain 726 (83.8) 141 (16.2) 867  
  Bottled water/demijohn/pet water 327 (72.9) 109 (27.1) 436  
  Other ((river, rain water etc.)) 430 (85.4) 74 (14.6) 504  
Type of toilet system (n = 4598)       
  Connected to drainage system 2778 (82.6) 551 (17.4) 3329 0.76
  Closed pit 1033 (81.9) 215 (18.1) 1248  
  Other (No facility) 18 (86.7) 3 (13.3) 21  
Source of heating (n = 4553)       
  Radiator (Central heating) 366 (75.0) 102 (25.0) 468 0.00
  Radiator (Private) 147 (71.0) 62 (29.0) 209  
  Natural gas stove 83 (84.8) 14 (15.2) 97  
  Stove (Cool/wood) 2985 (84.4) 536 (15.6) 3521  
  Animal excrement 103 (86.4) 17 (13.6) 120  
  Electricity 85 (83.7) 18 (16.3) 103  
  Gas stove 28 (78.0) 7 (22.0) 35  
Family income (USD/month)*** (n = 4194)       
  14–179 874 (84.6) 147 (15.4) 1021 0.00
  183–394 1472 (83.7) 272 (16.3) 1744  
  398–538 503 (83.8) 103 (16.2) 606  
  541 + 632 (75.1) 191 (24.9) 823  
  Total 3852 (82.5) 770 (17.5) 4622  
  1. *Weighted, **The group (disabled / orphan hood payment by government, n = 29) is excluded. ***1 USD = 1 395 000 TL.