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Table 1 Sample characteristics by social integration at baseline, Health and Retirement Study, 1998–2006

From: Impact of social integration on metabolic functions: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study of US older adults

Variable All Low social integration (0–3) High social integration (4,5) Difference p value
  (N = 4,323) (N = 3,184) (N = 1,139)  
Metabolic function (2006), mean (SD)     
 TC (mg/dl) 200.6 (40.5) 199.7 (40.2) 202.9 (41.0) 0.025
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 57.7 (14.6) 57.4 (14.2) 58.2 (15.6) 0.156
 HbA1c (%) 5.8 (0.8) 5.8 (0.8) 5.7 (0.8) 0.004
 WC (mm) 100.5 (14.4) 100.7 (14.4) 100.1 (14.6) 0.278
 BP     
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 130.6 (19.9) 131.7 (20.3) 127.6 (18.1) < 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80.1 (11.2) 80.2 (11.5) 79.9 (10.4) 0.421
 Metabolic dysregulation index     
 0 25.6% 24.3% 29.1% < 0.001
 1 35.7% 35.0% 37.6%
 2 25.3% 26.8% 21.4%
 3–5 13.4% 14.0% 12.0%
Demographic and social status     
 Age, mean (SD) 53.7 (10.0) 54.7 (10.3) 51.2 (8.8) < 0.001
 Sex, 1 = female (%) 54.9% 55.2% 54.1% 0.510
 Race, 1 = nonwhite (%) 13.5% 15.1% 9.2% < 0.001
 Education, 1 = 12+ years (%) 50.9% 47.0% 61.3% < 0.001
 Household income, 1 = top quartile (%) 25.0% 19.7% 38.9% < 0.001
Health behaviors     
 Cigarette smoking, 1 = ever (%) 56.3% 57.9% 51.8% < 0.001
 Excessive drinking, 1 = yes (%) 1.9% 2.0% 1.7% 0.472
 Regular exercise, 1 = yes (%) 46.2% 43.9% 52.3% < 0.001
Illness/conditions     
 BMI, mean (SD) 29.2 (5.7) 29.1 (5.8) 29.5 (5.7) 0.309
 Depressive symptoms (CES-D), mean (SD) 1.4 (1.8) 1.5 (1.9) 1.0 (1.5) < 0.001
 Chronic conditions, mean (SD) 0.7 (0.8) 0.8 (0.8) 0.6 (0.7) < 0.001
 On HBP medications (%) 46.1% 47.2% 43.1% 0.017
 On diabetes medications (%) 13.9% 14.4% 12.6% 0.139
  1. Note: Weighted statistics for demographic and social status, health behaviors, and illness variables are reported for baseline except for household income, BMI, and medications, which are only available in 2006. SD = standard deviation; mg/dl = milligrams per deciliter; mm = millimeters.