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Table 1 Study and participant characteristics

From: Effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy diet in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Study (Year) Country Study design Selection of participants Number of practices Participants randomised (% Female) Eligible age range (mean) years Ethnicity and socioeconomic status Diet assessment tool
Baron (1990) [33] UK RCT Randomly selected participants registered with a family practice One group general practice 437 randomised 368 participated (49) 25-60 (41.7) Social class 1 or 2: controls, 30% men, 24% women; intervention 39% men, 43% women. Self-administered food frequency questionnaire
Beresford (1997) [35] USA Cluster RCT Participants attending routine visits without major illness 28 physician practices within 6 clinics 2121 (68) 26% > 65 years White: 91%; Some college education: 73%. Family income below $25000 per year: 28%. Telephone interview administered food frequency questionnaire
Coates (1999) [28] USA RCT Post menopausal women volunteers, consuming at least 36% energy from fat University clinical centres in three states 2208 (100) 50-79 (60) White (55%), Black (28%), Hispanic (16%); <High School (11%), High School (20%), Post high school with no college degree (35%), graduate /post graduate (33%) Self-administered food frequency questionnaire
Fries (2005) [34] USA RCT Randomly selected participants from physicians’ lists Three rural Virginia physician practices 754 (64) 18-72 (46.34) White: 61%, African American: 37%; 8th grade: College degree: 24%; Income < $10,000: 14.69%, ≥$41,000:19%. Telephone interview administered fat and fibre behaviour questionnaire
Gann (2003) [36] USA RCT Women volunteers aged 20–40 years recruited through advertising and direct mail in Chicago. One clinic 213 (100) 20-40 (33.4) 76% White, 13.5% Black, 4% Hispanic, 5.5% Asian, 1.5% other; 85% completed college Telephone interview administered food frequency questionnaire, based on 24 hr diet recall on each of three days
Kristal (2000) [32] USA RCT Randomly selected patients enrolled with an HMO. Health maintenance organisation 1459 (50) 18-69 (45.8) White (85.9%), Black (4.5%), Asian (5.8%), Hispanic (3.0%), Other (0.8%); Household income < $25,000 12.2%, ≥$70,000 21.7%. Telephone interview administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and Diet Habits Questionnaire
Roderick (1997) [29] UK Cluster RCT Unselected patients attending GP surgery practices 8 family practices 956 (50) 35-59 (47.3) Non-manual occupation, intervention 60%, control 49%; rented accommodation intervention 11%, control 25%. Self-administered food frequency questionnaire.
Sacerdote (2006) [30] Italy RCT Unselected patients, not obese, no chronic disease 33 general practitioners 3179 (50) 18-65 (44.5) Not reported Family physician administered food frequency questionnaire
Stevens (2003) [31] USA RCT Women with recent negative mammogram and total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl Health maintenance organization (HMO) 616 (100) 40-70 (53.8) Minority groups: 7%; College graduates: 40% Self-administered fat and fibre behaviour questionnaire (FFBQ)
Takahashi (2006) [27] Japan RCT Healthy volunteers in two rural villages, advice given after annual health checks Not reported 550 (68) 40-69 (56) Not reported Self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ)