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Table 1 Socio-demographics, drug use and offending history by regular use of heroin in year before prison

From: Heroin use impairs smoking cessation among Australian prisoners

  Not regularly used heroin % (N = 265) Regularly used heroin % (N = 160) Total men % (N = 425) P-value
Socio-demographics     
Age group     
  < 25 years 25.3 19.4 23.1  
  25-29 years 17.4 24.4 20.0 P < 0.01
  30-39 years 23.4 37.5 28.7  
  40+ years 34.0 18.9 28.2  
Mean age 34.4 32.0 33.5 P < 0.02
  (+SD; Range) (11.2; 18–65) (8.0; 19–54) (10.2; 18–65)  
Aboriginal origin 14.3 16.3 15.1 NS
Born in Australia 74.8 75.0 74.9 NS
Left school no qualification 39.3 50.6 43.5 P < 0.03
Mean age left school 15.5 14.6 15.1 P < 0.01
  (+SD; Range) (1.7; 12–26) (2.3; 0–19) (2.0; 0–26)  
Institutionalised as a child (juvenile detention and/or placed in care) 31.3 48.8 37.9 P < 0.01
Homeless prior to prison 4.5 11.3 7.1 P < 0.01
Employed while in prison 79.3 60.0 72.0 P < 0.01
Ever use drugs by drug type     
Cannabis 89.1 98.8 92.7 P < 0.01
Amphetamines 66.0 95.0 76.9 P < 0.01
Cocaine 44.2 81.9 58.4 P < 0.01
Heroin 30.1 100.0 56.5 P < 0.01
Other opiates 18.9 66.9 36.9 P < 0.01
Tranquilisers 22.6 66.9 39.3 P < 0.01
Any drugs (other than heroin) 92.1 100.0 38.6 P < 0.01
Any drugs 92.5 100.0 95.3 P < 0.01
Regularly (daily or almost daily) use drugs prior to prison by drug type     
Cannabis 52.8 73.1 60.5 P < 0.01
Amphetamines 41.9 60.0 48.7 P < 0.01
Cocaine 23.8 56.9 36.2 P < 0.01
Other opiates 3.0 37.5 16.0 P < 0.01
Tranquilisers 6.4 35.6 17.4 P < 0.01
Any drugs (other than heroin) 69.1 92.5 77.9 P < 0.01
Any drugs 69.4 100.0 80.9 P < 0.01
Offending history     
Previously incarcerated 50.6 85.6 63.8 P < 0.01
Median number adult prison terms 2.0 4.0 2.0 P < 0.01
  (+SD; Range) (2.7; 1–20) (2.8; 1–15) (2.9; 1–20)  
Median years in prison at baseline 1.9 1.8 1.9 NS
  (+SD; Range) (4.2; 0.02-27.1) (4.1; 0.03-23.2) (4.2; 0.02-27.1)  
Median sentence length in years 3.9 3.1 3.6 NS
  (+SD; Range) (13.4; 0.5-113.9) (15.4; 0.4-115.8) (14.2; 0.4-115.8)  
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation; NS = not significant.