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Table 1 Characteristics of cross-sectional studies that evaluated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Brazilian adult population

From: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

Authors and publication year (Ref. no.) City, region Number of participants (W, M) Age range (years) Measurements Criteria for diagnosis of MS Overall prevalence of MS (%) Overall prevalence of individual components of MS (%) Relevant findings/Associations*
Dutra et al., 2012 [18] Brasília, Federal District 2130 (72.5% W, 27.5% M) ≥18 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib IDF and AHA/NHLBI harmonized criteria (2009) 32.0 AO: N/A Logistic regression model adjusted for age:
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c BP: two measurements High G: N/A Age 25-34 years: female: PR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.13-3.74; male: PR = 3.35; 95% CI 1.27-8.88
HT: N/A Age 35-44 years: female: PR = 3.62; 95% CI 2.04-6.44; male: PR = 4.87; 95% CI 1.94-12.20
High TAG: N/A Age 45-54 years: female: PR = 5.42; 95% CI 3.08-9.55; male: PR = 7.60; 95% CI 3.08-18.70
Low HDL-c: N/A Age 55-64 years: female: PR = 6.57; 95% CI 3.74-11.55; male: PR = 8.95; 95% CI 3.64-22.00
Age ≥65 years: female: PR = 7.45; 95% CI 4.23-13.11; male: PR = 7.89; 95% CI 3.14-19.80
BMI 25-29 kg/m2: female: PR = 4.29; 95% CI 3.21-5.75; male: PR = 4.52; 95% CI 2.64-7.74
BMI ≥30 kg/m2: female: PR =7.04; 95% CI 5.32-9.31; male: PR =9.99; 95% CI 5.92-16.90
Schooling 9-11 years: female: PR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.96
Schooling ≥12 years: female: PR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.37-0.70
de Oliveira et al., 2011 [21] Jaguapiru Indigenous Village, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul 606 (55.8% W, 44.2% M) 18-69 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib IDF 35.7 AO: 60.9 N/A
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 11.4
BP: two measurements HT: 40.3
High TAG: N/A
Low HDL-c: N/A
Gronner et al., 2011 [17] Southeastern region 1116 (64.5% W, 35.5% M) 30-79 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib NCEP-ATPIII (2005) and IDF NCEP-ATPIII (2005): 35.9 AO (NCEP-ATPIII 2005): 56.2 Logistic regression model:
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c IDF: 43.2 AO (IDF): 72.6 Age 40-49 years†: OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.47-3.16
BP: three measurements High G: 13.3 Age 50-59 years†: OR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.85-3.89
HT: 59.2 Age 60-69 years†: OR = 4.64; 95% CI 3.06-7.04
High TAG: 16.8 Age 70-79 years†: OR = 4.77; 95% CI 3.11-7.32
Low HDL-c: 76.3 Skin color white‡: OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.28-2.14
Schooling fundamental§: OR = 2.51; 95% CI 1.58-4.00
BMI ≥25 kg/m2: OR = 5.68; 95% CI 4.30-7.51
Pimenta et al., 2011 [14] Virgem das Graças and Caju, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais 534 (49.4% W, 50.6% M) ≥18 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib NCEP-ATPIII (2005) 14.9 AO: 11.6 Poisson regression model:
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 10.6 Female: PR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.33-3.62
BP: three measurements HT: 59.7 Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2): PR = 3.03; 95% CI 2.05-4.48
High TAG: 15.2 CRP ≥4º : PR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.31
Low HDL-c: 44.1 HOMA-IR ≥4º quartile: PR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.28-2.88
Age ≥60 years†: PR = 7.06; CI 95% 2.62-19.04
Alcohol consumption (0.1 to 20 g ethanol/day): PR = 0.26; CI 95% 0.09-0.73
da Rocha et al., 2011 [22] Porto Alegre and Planalto/ Nonoai, Rio Grande do Sul 150 (55.3% W, 44.7% M) 40-104 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib NCEP-ATPIII (2001) 65.3 AO: 64.7 N/A
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 38.0
BP: N/A HT: 64.7
High TAG: 48.7
Low HDL-c: 67.3
Silva et al., 2011 [15] São Paulo 287 (74.6% W, 25.4% M) 20-64 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib IDF 36.6 AO: N/A Short height adjusted for age and gender: OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.12-1.26
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: N/A
BP: two measurements HT: N/As
High TAG: N/A
Low HDL-c: N/A
Marquezine et al., 2008 [16] Vitória, Espírito Santo 1561 (54.5% W, 45.5% M) 25-64 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib NCEP-ATPIII (2001) 25.4 AO: 16.3 Logistic regression model adjusted for age in female:
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 21.4 Low social class: OR = 1.64
BP: three measurements HT: 46.6  
High TAG: 30.9
Low HDL-c: 54.3
Salaroli et al., 2007 [5] Vitória, Espírito Santo 1630 (54.4% W, 45.6% M) 25-64 WC: at the natural waist or the lower curvature between the lowest rib and the iliac crest NCEP-ATPIII (2001) 29.8 AO: N/A N/A
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: N/A
BP: two measurements HT: N/A
High TAG: N/A
Low HDL-c: N/A
Velásquez-Meléndez et al., 2007 [19] Virgem das Graças, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais 251 (53.4% W, 46.6% M) 18-88 WC: at the midpoint between the iliac crest and the lowest rib NCEP-ATPIII (2001) 21.6 AO: 26.7 Logistic regression model adjusted for BMI, age and schooling:
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 6.0 BMI ≥25 kg/m2: OR = 21.14; 95% CI 8.43-50.01
BP: three measurements HT: 62.5 Age 30-42 years†: OR = 3.15; 95% CI 1.08-9.18
High TAG: 22.3 Age 43-59 years†: OR = 5.18; 95% CI 1.38-19.41
Low HDL-c: 37.1 Age 60-88 years†: OR = 17.58; 95% CI 3.45-49.51
de Oliveira et al., 2006 [20] Cavunge, Bahia 240 (57.5% W, 42.5% M) 25-87 WC: at the umbilical level NCEP-ATPIII (2001) 30.0 AO: 31.7 Age ≥45 years: PR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.61-4.21
Fasting G, TAG and HDL-c High G: 15.8 Age ≥55 years: PR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.84-4.89
BP: two measurements HT: 57.1
High TAG: 19.6
        Low HDL-c: 70.4  
  1. Abbreviations: AHA/NHLBI, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; AO, abdominal obesity; BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; G, glucose; HDL-c, HDL-cholesterol; high G, hyperglycemia; high TAG, hypertriglyceridemia; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance; HT, hypertension; IDF, International Diabetes Federation; M, men; MS, metabolic syndrome; N/A, information not available; NCEP-ATP III, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; PR, prevalence ratio; TAG, triacylglycerol; W, women; WC, waist circumference.
  2. *Only statistically significant associations are shown (P < 0.05).
  3. †Reference group for age <30 years.
  4. ‡Reference group for non-white skin color.
  5. §Reference group for higher educational level.