Skip to main content

Table 4 Moderator effects: subgroup analysis (post-test)

From: Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

Outcome measure Criteria Subgroup (study) n Cohen’s d (95% CI) Test for subgroup differences
Subjective well-being Self-selection Self-selected 15 0.29 (0.18 – 0.39)*** Q=0.64, df=1 (p=.43)
   Not self-selected 13 0.38 (0.17 – 0.60)**  
  Duration <=4 weeks 17 0.35 (0.18 – 0.52)*** Q=1.84, df=2 (p=.91)
   <=8 weeks 6 0.24 (0.10 - 0.39)** Slope=0.01, Z=0.14 (p=.89)
   >8 weeks 5 0.43 (0.17 – 0.68)**  
  Type Self help 20 0.33 (0.20 – 0.46)*** Q=0.20, df=2 (p=.91)
   Group 5 0.38 (0.03 – 0.73)*  
   Individual 3 0.41 (0.01 – 0.81)*  
  Recruitment Community 6 0.29 (0.11 – 0.48)** Q=5.36, df=4 (p=.25)
   Internet 2 0.06 (−0.24 – 0.35)ns  
   Referral/hospital 2 0.51 (0.08 – 0.95)*  
   University 16 0.36 (0.19 – 0.53)***  
   Organization 2 0.62 (0.11-1.12)*  
  Psychosocial problems Specific psychosocial problems 4 0.31 (0.09 – 0.52)** Q=0.10, df=1 (p=.76)
   None 24 0.35 (0.22 – 0.48)***  
  Quality rating Low (1–2) 16 0.29 (0.17 – 0.40)*** Q=2.41, df=2 (p=.30)
   Medium (3–4) 11 0.40 (0.19 – 0.61)*** Slope=−0.00, Z=0.08 (p=.94)
   High (5–6) 1 0.05 (−0.34 – 0.44)ns  
Psychological well-being Self-selection Self-selected 15 0.18 (0.05 – 0.30)** Q=0.32, df=1 (P=.57)
   Not self-selected 5 0.25 (0.04- 0.46) *  
  Duration <=4 weeks 11 0.16 (0.07 – 0.25)*** Q=1.91, df=2 (p=.39)
   <=8 weeks 2 0.35 (−0.20 – 0.89)ns Slope=0.05, Z=0.95 (p=.34)
   >8 weeks 7 0.41 (0.03 – 0.79)*  
  Type Self help 10 0.14 (0.05 – 0.23)** Q=3.76, df=2 (p=.15)
   Group 6 0.26 (0.08 – 0.44)**  
   Individual 4 0.81 (−0.01 – 1.63)ns  
  Recruitment Community 4 0.20 (−0.03 – 0.44)ns Q=7.04, df=4 (p=.13)
   Internet 5 0.09 (−0.03 – 0.21)ns  
   Referral/hospital 4 0.91 (0.24 – 1.57)**  
   University 5 0.22 (0.08 – 0.35)**  
   Organization 2 0.18 (−0.43 – 0.78)ns  
  Psychosocial problems Specific psychosocial problems 5 0.59 (0.00 – 1.18)* Q=1.93, df=1 (p=.17)
   None 15 0.17 (0.08 – 0.25)***  
  Quality rating Low (1–2) 10 0.32 (0.07 – 0.58)* Q=1.86, df=2 (p=.40)
   Medium (3–4) 9 0.15 (0.06 – 0.24)** Slope=−0.01, Z=−0.45 (p=.66)
   High (5–6) 1 0.29 (−0.11 – 0.68)ns  
Depression Self-selection Self-selected 12 0.20 (0.05– 0.36)* Q=1.73, df=1 (p=.19)
   Not self-selected 2 0.41 (0.15 – 0.66)**  
  Duration <=4 weeks 7 0.15 (0.02 - 0.28)* Q=4.86, df=2 (p=.09)
   <=8 weeks 2 0.47 (−0.02 - 0.97)ns Slope=0.20, Z=2.32 (p=.02)
   >8 weeks 5 0.68 (0.15 – 1.21)*  
  Type Self help 8 0.15 (0.03 – 0.27)* Q=6.99, df=2 (p=.03)
   Group 2 0.47 (−0.02 – 0.97)ns  
   Individual 4 0.88 (0.29 – 1.47)**  
  Recruitment Community 1 0.48 (−0.23 – 1.18)ns Q=15.76, df=4 (p<.01)
   Internet 5 0.11 (−0.02 – 0.23)ns  
   Referral/hospital 3 1.14 (0.55 – 1.73)***  
   University 3 0.41 (0.17 – 0.65)**  
   Organization 2 0.22 (−0.18 – 0.63)ns  
  Psychosocial problems Specific psychosocial problems 5 0.78 (0.35 – 1.21)*** Q=7.65, df=1 (p=.01)
   None 9 0.16 (0.05 – 0.27)**  
  Quality rating Low (1–2) 7 0.47 (0.26 – 0.67)*** Q=10.14, df=2 (p=.01)
   Medium (3–4) 6 0.15 (0.00 – 0.30)* Slope=−0.10, Z=−2.26 (p=.02)
   High (5–6) 1 −0.17 (−0.56 – 0.22)ns  
  1. * p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001; ns non-significant.
  2. n = Number of studies.