Skip to main content

Table 3 Odds ratios for poor self-rated health associated with each group involvement, stratified by sex

From: Group involvement and self-rated health among the Japanese elderly: an examination of bonding and bridging social capital

  Poor health Model 1 Model 2a Model 3b
  N (%) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Men        
The elderly club, sports/hobby/culture circle        
  No involvement 854 (36.92) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 129 (23.45) 0.69 (0.56-0.85) 0.72 (0.54-0.96) 0.75 (0.56-1.02)
  Bridging social capital 300 (21.02) 0.51 (0.44-0.59) 0.61 (0.50-0.74) 0.60 (0.49-0.75)
Alumni association        
  No involvement 785 (40.93) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 160 (18.89) 0.48 (0.40-0.58) 0.55 (0.43-0.70) 0.57 (0.44-0.75)
  Bridging social capital 335 (22.27) 0.55 (0.48-0.64) 0.77 (0.63-0.93) 0.83 (0.67-1.02)
Political campaign club        
  No involvement 1071 (31.66) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 31 (24.80) 0.77 (0.51-1.16) 0.87 (0.50-1.54) 1.06 (0.58-1.92)
  Bridging social capital 187 (23.23) 0.66 (0.55-0.79) 0.80 (0.64-1.02) 0.90 (0.70-1.15)
Citizen’s group, environmental preservation group        
  No involvement 1027 (33.11) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 29 (17.16) 0.47 (0.31-0.71) 0.53 (0.31-0.89) 0.55 (0.32-0.95)
  Bridging social capital 224 (22.36) 0.60 (0.51-0.71) 0.92 (0.74-1.14) 1.00 (0.80-1.26)
Community association        
  No involvement 808 (39.90) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 70 (23.41) 0.71 (0.54-0.93) 0.65 (0.44-0.96) 0.71 (0.47-1.07)
  Bridging social capital 408 (20.43) 0.42 (0.37-0.49) 0.62 (0.51-0.75) 0.69 (0.56-0.84)
Religious organization        
  No involvement 1076 (31.32) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 36 (33.03) 1.16 (0.77-1.74) 1.61 (0.97-2.68) 1.51 (0.87-2.62)
  Bridging social capital 183 (23.49) 0.67 (0.56-0.80) 0.77 (0.60-0.98) 0.79 (0.61-1.02)
Women        
The elderly club, sports/hobby/culture circle        
  No involvement 1246 (36.68) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 206 (20.02) 0.55 (0.47-0.65) 0.68 (0.46-0.99) 0.73 (0.49-1.09)
  Bridging social capital 436 (21.67) 0.57 (0.50-0.64) 0.88 (0.66-1.17) 0.94 (0.69-1.29)
Alumni association        
  No involvement 1334 (37.03) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 200 (18.50) 0.49 (0.41-0.58) 0.64 (0.45-0.93) 0.63 (0.43-0.93)
  Bridging social capital 324 (19.95) 0.51 (0.45-0.59) 0.63 (0.45-0.87) 0.75 (0.53-1.05)
Political campaign club        
  No involvement 1739 (30.92) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 22 (20.75) 0.62 (0.39-1.00) 1.46 (0.38-5.58) 1.36 (0.35-5.27)
  Bridging social capital 101 (17.50) 0.48 (0.38-0.60) 0.59 (0.36-0.97) 0.66 (0.39-1.13)
Citizen’s group, environmental preservation group        
  No involvement 1658 (32.10) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 30 (17.34) 0.49 (0.33-0.73) 0.13 (0.02-1.01) 0.15 (0.02-1.13)
  Bridging social capital 153 (16.91) 0.44 (0.37-0.53) 0.82 (0.56-1.20) 0.92 (0.62-1.37)
Community association        
  No involvement 1324 (37.67) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 108 (20.30) 0.59 (0.47-0.73) 0.86 (0.53-1.41) 0.81 (0.48-1.37)
  Bridging social capital 451 (19.20) 0.43 (0.38-0.49) 0.69 (0.51-0.93) 0.77 (0.56-1.06)
Religious organization        
  No involvement 1701 (30.56) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Bonding social capital 27 (21.26) 0.64 (0.42-0.99) 0.86 (0.31-2.36) 0.72 (0.23-2.22)
  Bridging social capital 155 (21.89) 0.64 (0.53-0.78) 0.59 (0.38-0.93) 0.67 (0.42-1.07)
  1. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
  2. aAdjusted for age, educational attainment, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, weight, and living arrangements.
  3. bAdjusted for all of the variables included in Model 2, and type-D personality.