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Table 3 Evidence for the impact of retirement on various health outcomes from longitudinal studies on retirement and health

From: Is retirement good for your health? A systematic review of longitudinal studies

Outcome Impact of retirementa Best evidence synthesisb
  High quality studies Low quality studies  
Perceived health 0 23 0 25, 31, 32 Insufficient evidence
+ 11, 17 + 28
- 35  
? 34 ? 33
Mental health + 16, 23, 24, 26, 27, 36 + 25, 31, 37, 38 Strong evidence
  0 28, 30, 31
Physical health    
Somatic complaints 0 29   Insufficient evidence
Physical functioning - 26, 27 0 38 Insufficient evidencec
Physical fatigue + 16 0 31 Insufficient evidence
Disability   ? 41 Insufficient evidence
Chronic or (irreversible) illness 0 16 0 40 Insufficient evidence
- 39 - 28
  + 31
Perceived serious health problems 0 34   Insufficient evidence
  1. a? = unclear (including not shown to be statistically significant); 0 = no change; + = improvement; - = decline.
  2. bStrong evidence: consistent findings in multiple (≥ 2) high-quality studies; Moderate evidence: consistent findings in one high-quality study and at least one low-quality study, or consistent findings in multiple low-quality studies; Insufficient evidence: only one study available or inconsistent findings in multiple (≥ 2) studies. Consistency of results was determined following that for at least 75% of the studies reporting on a particular relation the results should be in the same direction, defined by p < 0.05 [2022].
  3. cInsufficient evidence because both studies use data from the same study.