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Table 4 A ssociations of five log-transformed adiposity indicators with eating habits and physical activity

From: Physical activity in daily life is associated with lower adiposity values than doing weekly sports in Lc65+ cohort at baseline

  Ln (BMI)   Ln (WC)   Ln (WHR)   Ln (SISF)   Ln (TSF)  
  ß[95% CI] P ß[95% CI] P ß[95% CI] P ß[95% CI] P ß[95% CI] P
MEN: (N ≥ 477):           
Eating habits:           
 Three meals/day −0.02 [−0.04-0.01]   −0.01 [−0.02-0.01]   −0.01 [−0.02-0.00]   0.00 [−0.07-0.08]   −0.04 [−0.11-0.03]  
 Fruit and veg. ≥twice/day 0.00 [−0.03-0.03]   0.00 [−0.02-0.03]   0.00 [−0.02-0.01]   0.05 [−0.05-0.14]   0.02 [−0.07-0.12]  
 Sufficient protein intake$ 0.03 [0.00-0.06] * 0.03 [0.01-0.05] ** 0.02 [0.01-0.03] ** 0.04 [−0.04-0.12]   −0.03 [−0.11-0.04]  
Daily PA and sports           
 1: No stairs, no sport 0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)  
 2: No stairs, sports ≥1×/wk −0.03 [−0.08-0.03]   −0.03 [−0.07-0.02]   0.00 [−0.03-0.03]   −0.25 [−0.43- -0.07] ** −0.22 [−0.40- -0.04] *
 3: Stairs, no sport −0.07 [−0.11- -0.04] *** −0.06 [−0.09- -0.03] *** −0.02 [−0.04- -0.01] * −0.24 [−0.35- -0.13] *** −0.18 [−0.29- -0.07] **
 4: Stairs, sports ≥1×/wk −0.09 [−0.13- -0.05] *** −0.10 [−0.12- -0.07] *** −0.05 [−0.07- -0.03] *** −0.30 [−0.41- -0.18] *** −0.20 [−0.31- -0.09] **
Age (per 1-birth year) 0.01 [0.00-0.01]   0.00 [0.00-0.01]   0.00 [0.00-0.01]   0.02 [0.00-0.05]   0.00 [−0.02-0.03]  
Living alone (0/1) −0.03 [−0.06-0.00]   −0.01 [−0.04-0.01]   0.01 [−0.01-0.02]   0.03 [−0.07-0.12]   0.02 [−0.08-0.11]  
Financial diff. (0/1) −0.01 [−0.03-0.02]   0.00 [−0.02-0.02]   0.00 [−0.01-0.01]   −0.01 [−0.10-0.08]   0.01 [−0.07-0.10]  
Symptoms of depression 0.03 [0.00-0.06] * 0.02 [−0.01-0.04]   0.00 [−0.01-0.02]   0.06 [−0.04-0.15]   0.04 [−0.06-0.13]  
Education           
 Basic compulsory 0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)  
 Apprenticeship −0.03 [−0.07-0.00]   −0.02 [−0.05-0.01]   −0.01 [−0.03-0.01]   −0.01 [−0.11-0.10]   −0.03 [−0.13-0.07]  
 ≥High school −0.05 [−0.09- -0.02] ** −0.03 [−0.06- -0.01] * −0.02 [−0.04- -0.01] * −0.02 [−0.13-0.08]   −0.03 [−0.13-0.08]  
Current smoking (0/1)§ −0.04 [−0.07- -0.01] * −0.01 [−0.03-0.01]   0.01 [−0.01-0.02]   −0.11 [−0.20- -0.03] * −0.05 [−0.14-0.03]  
WOMEN (N ≥ 657)           
Eating habits:           
 Three meals/day 0.00 [−0.03-0.03]   0.01 [−0.02-0.03]   0.00 [−0.01-0.01]   0.06 [−0.02-0.13]   −0.03 [−0.09-0.03]  
 Fruit and veg. ≥twice/day 0.05 [0.00-0.10] * 0.02 [−0.02-0.05]   −0.01 [−0.03-0.01]   0.14 [0.02-0.27] * 0.14 [0.04-0.23] **
 Sufficient protein intake$ 0.03 [0.00-0.06]   0.02 [0.00-0.04]   0.01 [−0.01-0.02]   0.04 [−0.04-0.11]   0.05 [−0.01-0.11]  
Daily PA and sports           
 1: No stairs, no sport 0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)  
 2: No stairs, sports ≥1×/wk −0.04 [−0.10-0.01]   −0.02 [−0.07-0.02]   0.00 [−0.03-0.03]   −0.16 [−0.32-0.00] * −0.13 [−0.25- -0.01] *
 3: Stairs, no sport −0.12 [−0.16- -0.08] *** −0.08 [−0.11- -0.05] *** −0.03 [−0.04- -0.01] ** −0.25 [−0.36- -0.14] *** −0.15 [−0.23- -0.07] ***
 4: Stairs, sports ≥1×/wk −0.16 [−0.20- -0.12] *** −0.12 [−0.15- -0.09] *** −0.03 [−0.05- -0.01] ** −0.34 [−0.45- -0.23] *** −0.19 [−0.27- -0.11] ***
Age (per 1-birth year) 0.00 [−0.01-0.01]   0.00 [−0.01-0.01]   0.00 [0.00-0.00]   0.01[−0.02-0.03]   0.00 [−0.02-0.02]  
Living alone (0/1) −0.03 [−0.06-0.00] * −0.02 [−0.04-0.00]   −0.01 [−0.02-0.01]   −0.05 [−0.12-0.03]   −0.06 [−0.11-0.00] *
Financial diff. (0/1) 0.04 [0.01-0.07] * 0.02 [−0.01-0.04]   0.00 [−0.01-0.02]   0.08 [−0.01-0.16]   0.05 [−0.01-0.12]  
Symptoms of depression 0.01[−0.02-0.04]   0.01[−0.01-0.04]   0.01[0.00-0.02]   0.06[−0.02-0.14]   0.01[−0.05-0.07]  
Education           
 Basic compulsory 0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)   0 (ref.)  
 Apprenticeship −0.02[−0.05-0.01]   −0.01[−0.03-0.02]   −0.01[−0.02-0.01]   −0.04[−0.13-0.05]   −0.02[−0.09-0.05]  
 ≥High school −0.06[−0.10- -0.03] *** −0.04[−0.06- -0.01] ** −0.02[−0.03-0.00] * −0.14[−0.23- -0.05] ** −0.07[−0.14-0.00]  
Current smoking (0/1)§ −0.07[−0.11- -0.04] *** −0.04[−0.06- -0.01] ** 0.00[−0.01-0.02]   −0.21[−0.30- -0.12] *** −0.15[−0.22- -0.08] ***
  1. Multivariate linear regression analysis. The table shows all covariates included in the adjustment.
  2. $“Sufficient protein intake” was defined if the participant reported eating meat, fish or poultry every day, or as an alternative, if he consumed dairy products ≥ once a day and eggs or leguminous plants ≥ twice/week.
  3. Financial difficulties (diff.) are considered if any of the following criteria is fulfilled: 1) current income clearly lower than others, 2) sometimes difficulty to make ends meet, 3) subsidy for health insurance, or 4) complementary subsidy (from old age insurance).
  4. §Participants who had stopped smoking before less than one year are considered current smokers in the analyses.
  5. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.