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Table 1 O besity, eating habits and physical exercise in 2004-2005

From: Physical activity in daily life is associated with lower adiposity values than doing weekly sports in Lc65+ cohort at baseline

  Men Women χ2
  N = 519 N = 741 P-value
  N (%) N (%)  
OBESITY PREVALENCE    
Body mass index category:    <0.001
 Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) 0 (0.0 ) 19 (2.6 )  
 Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) 120 (23.3 ) 290 (39.2 )  
 Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) 271 (52.6 ) 260 (35.2 )  
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) 124 (24.1 ) 170 (23.0 )  
Abdominal obesity (waist circumference: WC ≥ 102 cm in men, ≥ 88 cm in women) 228 (44.6 ) 334 (45.3 ) 0.823
WC-defined normal weight obesity (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WC ≥ 102 cm in men, ≥ 88 cm in women) 0 (0.0 ) 16 (2.2 ) <0.001**
WHR-defined normal weight obesity (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WHR ≥ 66th gender-specific percentile) 12 (2.3 ) 37 (5.0 ) 0.017 **
EATING HABITS    
Questions from the MNA:    
Number of meals per day*    0.177
 1 meal/day 33 (6.4 ) 60 (8.1 )  
 2 meals/day 204 (39.4 ) 257 (34.8 )  
 3 meals/day 281 (54.3 ) 422 (57.1 )  
Meat, fish or poultry everyday 265 (51.3 ) 343 (46.4 ) 0.087
Dairy products ≥ once a day 425 (82.1 ) 643 (86.8 ) 0.021
Eggs or leguminous plants ≥ twice/week 254 (49.0 ) 350 (47.2 ) 0.529
“Sufficient protein intake” 375 (72.5 ) 514 (69.5) 0.239
Fruit or vegetables ≥ twice/day 417 (80.5 ) 666 (90.1 ) <0.001
Drinks per day    0.223
 <3 glasses (1 glass = 2 dl.) 40 (7.7 ) 58 (7.8 )  
 3 to 5 glasses 199 (38.4 ) 250 (33.7 )  
 >5 glasses 279 (53.9 ) 433 (58.4 )  
Loss of appetite    0.627
 Yes, severe 1 (0.2 ) 4 (0.5 )  
 Yes, moderate 25 (4.8 ) 35 (4.7 )  
 Not at all 492 (95.0 ) 701 (94.7 )  
Self-perception of nutrition    0.708
 Severe malnutrition 0 (0.0 ) 0 (0.0 )  
 Doesn’t know/moderate malnutrition 21 (4.1 ) 27 (3.6 )  
 No nutritional problem 497 (96.0 ) 714 (96.4 )  
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (PA):    
Daily PA:    0.003
 Sitting or lying most of the time 39 (7.5 ) 37 (5.1 )  
 Often walking, but avoids stairs and loads 66 (12.8 ) 144 (19.7 )  
 Often walking and using stairs, carrying light loads 373 (72.2 ) 512 (69.9 )  
 Important physical activity, carries heavy loads 39 (7.5 ) 40 (5.5 )  
Sports (≥20 minutes) frequency:    0.236
 Less than once a week 246 (49.3 ) 359 (51.9 )  
 Once or twice a week 154 (30.9 ) 222 (32.1 )  
 Thrice a week or more 99 (19.8 ) 111 (16.0 )  
ADJUSTMENT VARIABLES:    
Living alone (0/1) 96 (18.5 ) 346 (46.7 ) <0.001
Financial difficulties (0/1) 123 (23.7 ) 207 (27.9 ) 0.092
Current symptoms of depression 97 (19.0 ) 201 (27.7 ) <0.001
Education    <0.001
 Basic compulsory 82 (15.9 ) 218 (29.5 )  
 Apprenticeship 225 (43.5 ) 274 (37.1 )  
 High school or more 210 (40.6 ) 246 (33.3 )  
Current smoking§ 119 (23.2 ) 143 (19.5 ) 0.112
  1. Categorical variables are given in numbers (%); the chi-square P-value compares proportions across sexes.
  2. **Fisher’s exact test.
  3. *Instructions given to interviewers: a breakfast includes a drink and one solid food item. A lunch or dinner meal needs to include a source of proteins, starchy food (feculent), and fruit or vegetables. It can be warm or cold. A sandwich is not considered as a meal.
  4. In order to have an approximate summary measure for protein intake, “Sufficient protein intake” was defined if the participant reported eating meat, fish or poultry every day, or as an alternative, if he consumed dairy products ≥ once a day and eggs or leguminous plants ≥ twice/week.
  5. Financial difficulties were considered if any of the following criteria was fulfilled: 1) current income clearly lower than others, 2) sometimes difficulty to make ends meet, 3) subsidy for health insurance, or 4) complementary subsidy (from old age insurance).
  6. §Participants who had stopped smoking before less than one year are considered current smokers in the analyses.