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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios and overall tests of significance for endorsing VCT use

From: Community stigma endorsement and voluntary counseling and testing behavior and attitudes among female heads of household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

  It is worthwhile to receive VCT and learn your HIV status
Variablea OR 95% CI P-value
Negative labeling and devaluation (Ref = 50 pts)a    0.04
  0 pts 1.14 0.68 – 1.91  
  25 pts 1.07 0.83 – 1.38  
  75 pts 0.94 0.72 – 1.21  
  100 pts 0.88 0.52 – 1.47  
Social exclusion (Ref = 50 pts)a    <0.001
  0 pts 1.96 1.23 – 3.10  
  25 pts 1.40 1.11 – 1.76  
  75 pts 0.71 0.56 – 0.90  
  100 pts 0.51 0.32 – 0.81  
Age (per 10 years) 0.91 0.76 – 1.08 0.3
Education (per 5 years) 0.91 0.62 – 1.34 0.6
Distance to clinic (per 5 km) 0.96 0.81 – 1.14 0.6
Reside in isolated district 0.68 0.47 – 0.99 0.047
Understand Portuguese 0.95 0.65 – 1.40 0.8
Marital status (Ref = married/common law)    0.8
  Divorced/separated 1.00 0.41 – 2.43  
  Single 0.83 0.55 – 1.25  
  Widowed 1.00 0.48 – 2.07  
Religion (Ref = Catholic)    0.5
  Evangelical and Pentecostal 0.73 0.44 – 1.19  
  Muslim 1.15 0.67 – 1.97  
  Non-Christian Eastern 0.64 0.23 – 1.76  
  Other Christian 0.54 0.24 – 1.22  
  Other 0.84 0.47 – 1.48  
  Protestant 1.15 0.64 – 2.06  
Quality of life score (75 versus 50 pts) 3.04 1.95 – 4.76 <0.001
HIV knowledge score (5 versus 1 pt) 1.68 1.06 – 2.68 0.047
HIV infection of self, relative and/or friend 1.02 0.62 –1.69 0.9
VCT experience (Ref = Never tested)    <0.001
  Ever tested & no test results received 2.79 1.64 – 4.73  
  Ever tested & results received 7.61 5.08–11.4  
Accessed health facility 1.27 0.86 – 1.87 0.2
Accessed pharmacy 0.87 0.59 – 1.29 0.5
Accessed traditional healer 1.63 1.17 – 2.28 0.004
Believes that ART helps people with HIV to be healthier 6.47 4.36 – 9.59 <0.001
Believes in alternative treatments for HIV 1.04 0.59 – 1.83 0.2
Perceived chance of becoming infected with HIV (Ref = non-response/don’t know)    0.9
  Already infected 1.41 0.41 – 4.79  
  Good chance 1.20 0.66 – 2.17  
  Small chance 1.07 0.68 – 1.68  
  No chance 1.64 1.08 – 2.49  
  1. 95% CI excluded 1, then there was a significant pairwise association between that category and the outcome.
  2. [a] An interaction term between NLD and SoE was included (p = 0.014); estimates were adjusted to median values (NLD = 41 and SoE = 47). NLD and SoE are modeled as linear (no evidence of nonlinearity).