Skip to main content

Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios and overall tests of significance for lifetime VCT use and past-6-months VCT use

From: Community stigma endorsement and voluntary counseling and testing behavior and attitudes among female heads of household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

  Lifetime VCT use Past-6-months VCT use
Variable OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Negative labeling and devaluation (Ref = 50 pts)a    0.025    0.053
  0 pts 1.05 0.62 – 1.78   1.25 0.70 – 2.24  
  25 pts 0.87 0.72 – 1.05   0.94 0.76 – 1.15  
  75 pts 1.63 1.14 – 2.32   1.63 1.10 – 2.41  
  100 pts 2.68 1.30 – 5.50   2.69 1.21 – 5.98  
Social exclusion (Ref = 50 pts)a    0.097    0.006
  0 pts 0.57 0.34 – 0.95   0.43 0.25 – 0.73  
  25 pts 0.78 0.62 – 0.98   0.68 0.53 – 0.86  
  75 pts 0.97 0.79 – 1.20   0.88 0.69 – 1.11  
  100 pts 0.85 0.50 – 1.45   0.63 0.35 – 1.13  
Age (per 10 years) 0.83 0.73 – 0.94 0.002 0.84 0.74 – 0.96 0.01
Education (per 5 years) 1.21 0.94 – 1.55 0.14 1.15 0.88 – 1.50 0.3
Distance to clinic (per 5 km) 0.82 0.74 – 0.92 0.001 0.87 0.77 – 0.98 0.02
Reside in isolated district 1.02 0.79 – 1.33 0.9 1.02 0.76 – 1.36 0.9
Understand Portuguese 1.24 0.95 – 1.61 0.11 1.47 1.10 – 1.96 0.009
Marital status (Ref = married/common law)    0.3    0.065
  Divorced/separated 0.63 0.32 – 1.24   0.28 0.11 – 0.74  
  Single 1.18 0.90 – 1.55   1.07 0.80 – 1.45  
  Widowed 1.14 0.67 – 1.94   0.87 0.47 – 1.64  
Religion (Ref = Catholic)    0.4    0.14
  Evangelical and Pentecostal 1.16 0.84 – 1.61   1.02 0.70 – 1.49  
  Muslim 0.90 0.59 –1.35   0.86 0.54 –1.37  
  Non-Christian Eastern 1.61 0.83 – 3.10   1.69 0.85 – 3.34  
  Other Christian 0.80 0.44 – 1.45   0.82 0.43 – 1.54  
  Other 1.39 0.90 – 2.15   1.67 1.08 – 2.60  
  Protestant 1.19 0.80 – 1.76   1.28 0.85 – 1.95  
Quality of life score (per 20 pts) 1.11 0.95 – 1.30 0.18 1.07 0.91 – 1.26 0.4
HIV knowledge score (8 versus 0 pts) 2.11 1.27 – 3.50 0.018 2.13 1.22 – 3.73 0.009
HIV infection of self, relative and/or friend 1.99 1.43 – 2.76 <0.001 1. 89 1. 34–2.67 <0.001
Accessed health facility 1.67 1.27 – 2.19 <0.001 1.38 1.03 – 1.85 0.03
Accessed pharmacy 1.39 1.07 – 1.82 0.014 1.46 1.09 – 1.94 0.01
Accessed traditional healer 1.05 0.84 – 1.32 0.7 0.96 0.75 – 1.23 0.7
Believes that ART helps people with HIV to be healthier 3.46 2.65 – 4.52 <0.001 2.98 2.21 – 4.00 <0.001
Believes in alternative treatments for HIV 2.08 1.48 – 2.92 <0.001 2.18 1.53 – 3.11 0.0002
Perceived chance of becoming infected with HIV (Ref = non-response/don’t know)    <0.001    <0.001
  Already infected 5.15 2.42 – 11.0   4.00 1.90 – 8.43  
  Good chance 2.27 1.54 – 3.35   1.77 1.14 – 2.76  
  Small chance 1.71 1.28 – 2.29   1.57 1.14 – 2.15  
  No chance 0.97 0.71 – 1.31   1.12 0.81 – 1.54  
  1. NLD Negative labeling and devaluation; SoE Social exclusion; OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval. If the 95% CI excluded 1, then there was a significant pairwise association between that category and the outcome. There was little evidence of an interaction between NLD and SoE with lifetime VCT use or past-6-months use (p > 0.6).
  2. [a] NLD, SoE and HIV knowledge scores were modeled using restricted cubic splines with 4 knots.