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Table 3 Mean values for work ability and general health at baseline and one year later by shift change group, for the overall sample (top rows) and by country

From: Effects of requested, forced and denied shift schedule change on work ability and health of nurses in Europe -Results from the European NEXT-Study

    Classification by response to the question at t2: “In the last 12 months: have you changed shift pattern?”
Country Outcomes   “No, I did not ask” “No, but I asked” “Yes, because I asked” “Yes, institution imposed it” “Yes, institution imposed it, I accepted”
Overall   n 9222 260 596 628 396
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 39.6 (39.4 – 39.7) 37.6 (36.9 – 38.4)*** 38.6 (38.1 – 39.0)*** 39.1 (38.7 – 39.5)* 39.4 (38.8 – 40.0)
t2 mean (95% CI) 39.3 (39.2 – 39.4)### 36.6 (35.8 – 37,3)*** ### 38.8 (38.3 – 39.3) 38.4 (37.9 – 38.8)** ### 40.0 (39.5 – 40.6)** #
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 65.3 (64.9 – 65.7) 63.9 (61.6 – 66.2) 65.2 (63.7 – 66.7) 63.8 (62.4 – 65.2) 65.6 (62.9 – 68.3)
t2 mean (95% CI) 63.0 (62.6 – 63.4)### 59.2 (56.9 – 61.5)*** ### 64.7 (63.2 – 66.2) 60.7 (58.8 – 62.6)* ### 64.4 (62.0 – 66.8)
Belgium   n 1151 20 71 60 31
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 40.2 (39.9 – 40.5) 37.2 (34.6 – 39.7)* 38.4 (37.3 – 39.5)** 39.6 (38.4 – 40.9) 39.8 (37.5 – 42.2)
t2 mean (95% CI) 39.9 (39.6 – 40.2)## 35.3 (33.2 – 37.3)** ### 39.2 (37.9 – 40.5) 38.6 (37.2 – 40.0) 40.1 (38.1 – 42.1)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 70.2 (69.2 – 71.1) 62.3 (53.4 – 71.1) 66.5 (61.9 – 71.1) 68.9 (64.2 – 73.6) 65.2 (57.5 – 72.9)
t2 mean (95% CI) 67.7 (66.7 – 68.6)### 55.8 (48.4 – 63.1)* 64.4 (60.0 – 68.7) 65.3 (61.2 – 69.5) 65.1 (59.6 – 70.7)
Finland   n 1848 54 176 85 107
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 39.9 (39.7 – 40.2) 38.2 (36.8 – 39.6) 39.6 (38.8 – 40.5) 38.4 (37.1 – 39.7)** 40.4 (39.5 – 41.2)
t2 mean (95% CI) 39.8 (39.6 – 40.1)# 38.0 (36.6 – 39.4) 40.1 (39.3 – 40.8) 37.4 (35.9 – 39.0)** 40.2 (39.1 – 41.2)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 66.9 (66.0 – 67.7) 64.6 (59.7 – 69.5) 69.1 (66.5 – 71.6) 64.6 (59.8 – 69.3) 66.6 (63.1 – 70.1)
t2 mean (95% CI) 66.1 (65.3 – 66.9)# 60.7 (56.2 – 65.3)# 69.2 (66.8 – 71.6) 61.5 (56.9 – 66.2)# 65.7 (62.3 – 69.1)
France   n 669 31 73 53 33
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 38.9 (38.5 – 39.2) 38.0 (36.1 – 39.9) 38.0 (36.3 – 39.6) 39.0 (37.8 – 40.2) 37.5 (34.8 – 40.1)
t2 mean (95% CI) 38.6 (38.1 – 39.0) 35.5 (33.3 – 37.6)** ## 37.8 (36.4 – 39.2) 37.1 (35.2 – 39.0)* ## 40.3 (38.7 – 41.8)** #
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 64.0 (62.5 – 65.5) 65.5 (58.6 – 72.4) 62.0 (57.1 – 66.9) 60.5 (54.2 – 66.8) 59.8 (52.0 – 67.7)
t2 mean (95% CI) 62.2 (60.8 – 63.5)## 57.4 (50.3 – 64.6)* ## 61.7 (57.0 – 66.5) 56.4 (50.8 – 62.0)# 63.8 (57.5 – 70.1)
Germany   n 1391 58 91 107 49
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 38.1 (37.8 – 38.4) 35.5 (33.6 – 37.5)* 36.9 (35.5 – 38.3) 38.4 (37.3 – 39.4) 37.5 (35.7 – 39.4)
t2 mean (95% CI) 37.7 (37.3 – 38.0)## 34.5 (32.6 – 36.4)* 36.6 (35.0 – 38.2) 38.1 (36.9 – 39.3) 38.6 (37.1 – 40.1)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 65.1 (64.1 – 66.1) 64.2 (58.8 – 69.5) 61.3 (56.9 – 65.7) 65.4 (61.7 – 69.1) 64.9 (59.5 – 70.3)
t2 mean (95% CI) 63.9 (62.9 – 64.9)## 62.6 (57.9 – 67.3) 63.5 (58.9 – 68.1)# 65.8 (62.1 – 69.6) 63.1 (58.9 – 67.3)#
Italy   n 1533 52 74 192 60
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 40.1 (39.9 – 40.4) 39.0 (37.1 – 40.8) 37.6 (36.3 – 39.0)*** 39.4 (38.7 – 40.2) 39.3 (37.6 – 40.9)
t2 mean (95% CI) 40.0 (39.8 – 40.3) 39.5 (37.9 – 41.0) 37.3 (35.9 – 38.8)## 39.4 (38.7 – 40.1) 40.4 (39.0 – 41.9)##
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 66.8 (65.9 – 67.7) 66.2 (60.5 – 71.8) 59.7 (54.5 – 65.0)*** 64.5 (62.0 – 67.1) 64.3 (59.4 – 69.1)
t2 mean (95% CI) 63.4 (62.5 – 64.3)### 64.4 (58.3 – 70.5) 57.5 (53.0 – 62.1) 62.3 (60.1 – 64.7) 65.7 (61.3 – 70.0)*
Netherlands   n 903 16 81 37 70
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 42.1 (41.8 – 42.4) 40.8 (37.7 – 43.9) 40.1 (38.8 – 41.4)** 41.3 (39.9 – 42.7) 41.0 (40.0 – 42.1)
t2 mean (95% CI) 42.0 (41.7 – 42.3) 40.1 (36.4 – 43.7)* 40.7 (39.3 – 42.0) 40.4 (38.7 – 42.0) 42.0 (40.9 – 43.2)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 72.6 (71.6 – 73.6) 73.4 (64.7 – 82.2) 71.2 (67.9 – 74.6) 70.5 (65.6 – 75.5) 74.4 (70.9 – 77.8)
t2 mean (95% CI) 70.4 (69.4 – 71.4)### 63.4 (54.2 – 72.5)* 70.9 (67.5 – 74.2) 65.7 (60.6 – 70.8) 71.4 (67.7 – 75.2)
Poland   n 1338 22 18 60 32
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 37.8 (37.5 – 38.1) 35.5 (32.9 – 38.0)* 36.8 (34.3 – 39.4) 38.5 (37.2 – 39.8) 36.5 (34.0 – 39.0)
t2 mean (95% CI) 37.2 (36.9 – 37.5)### 30.9 (28.3 – 33.5)*** ## 36.3 (32.8 – 39.7) 36.5 (35.0 – 38.0)# 36.3 (33.8 – 38.7)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 55.8 (54.8 – 56.7) 48.4 (38.5 – 58.4) 58.3 (49.6 – 67.1) 55.4 (51.8 – 59.1) 58.6 (50.6 – 66.5)
t2 mean (95% CI) 51.4 (50.5 – 52.2)### 39.8 (30.2 – 49.3)** 50.6 (42.7 – 58.4) 46.8 (43.2 – 50.4)* ### 50.0 (43.2 – 56.8)#
Slovakia   n 389 7 12 34 15
Work ability t1 mean (95% CI) 40.0 (39.6 – 40.5) 39.6 (34.8 – 44.3) 39.3 (36.8 – 41.9) 38.7 (37.2 – 40.0) 40.4 (37.6 – 43.2)
t2 mean (95% CI) 39.8 (39.3 – 40.2) 39.4 (34.1 – 44.7) 40.0 (37.7 – 42.3) 38.6 (36.9 – 40.2) 40.3 (36.7 – 44.0)
General health t1 mean (95% CI) 56.7 (55.0 – 58.4) 63.6 (43.3 – 83.9) 55.4 (43.3 – 67.5) 55.7 (48.7 – 62.7) 52.3 (40.3 – 64.3)
   t2 mean (95% CI) 53.2 (51.5 – 54.9)### 50.0 (26.1 – 73.9) 53.8 (42.5 – 65.0) 51.2 (46.0 – 56.3) 51.5 (41.4 – 61.6)
  1. *indicate significance levels of differences between the reference group “No, I did not ask” and the other shift change groups at t1 and t2, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, country (overall) *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. #indicate significance levels of within group differences between t1 and t2 (time trends), assessed by GLM Repeated Measures, adjusted for age, gender, and country (overall).
  3. #p < 0.05, ## p < 0.01, ### p < 0.001.
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