Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval for the associations of awareness of DM with various social demographic factors and co-morbidities

From: Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: a strong case for health education and promotion

Variable (reference) Adjusted Odds Ratio* 95% C.I. P-Value
Age of respondent (< 45 years)    
  45-60 years 1.02 0.98-1.05 0.32
  > 60 years 3.60 0.94-13.70 0.06
Education level (Arabic school)    
  High school 19.77 5.19-75.19 <0.001
  Middle school 5.23 1.75-15.58 0.0030
  None 1.37 0.47-3.94 0.5630
  Primary 1.48 0.47-4.65 0.5022
  University 10.40 2.23-48.49 0.0029
Ethnicity (Aku)    
  Fula 19.07 0.85-425.26 0.0628
  Mandinka 13.53 0.59-312.18 0.1038
  Others 5.36 0.32-90.69 0.2450
  Sarahule 3.08 0.07-144.20 0.5663
  Wolof 18.93 0.86-418.63 0.0627
Occupation ( Non sedentary)    
  Sedentary 1.91 0.75-4.90 0.1775
Place of residence ( Rural )    
  Urban 1.35 0.55-3.33 0.5176
Sex (Female)    
  Male 1.23 0.55-2.72 0.6272
Religion (Christianity)    
Islam 0.21 0.02-1.92 0.1656
Adherence to monthly clinic visits (No)    
  Yes 1.19 0.26-5.46 0.8233
Duration of DM illness (<1 year )    
  >10 years 3.83 1.06-13.90 0.0409
  5-10 years 3.53 0.96-12.99 0.0578
  1-5 years 2.39 0.72-7.89 0.1527
Knowledge of someone with diabetes (No)    
  Yes 2.78 0.67-2.24 0.0092
Co-morbidities with DM    
  Hypertension (Yes vs. No) 1.01 0.58-1.76 0.9729
  Heart Disease (Yes vs. No) 2.31 0.41-12.91 0.3400
  Hypercholesterolemia (Yes vs. No) 1.01 0.58-1.76 0.9729
  1. * Mutually adjusted for other variables shown in the table.