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Table 7 Odds ratios (and 95 % CI) of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 22) by the total score on the life events scale for students (LESS) after adjusting for all sociodemographic factors as estimated in multivariable logistic regression models

From: The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

Total score of events in LESS Unadjusted   Adjusted†  
  OR (95%CI) P value OR (95 % CI) P value
Score of events     
0-49 1 -------------- 1 -----------
50-149 1.03 (0.43-1.53) 0.513 0.79 (0.41-1.50) 0.463
150-241 1.25 (0.68-2.30) 0.480 1.17 (0.63-2.18) 0.606
242-350 1.80 (0.99-3.30) 0.055 1.75 (0.95-3.23) 0.072
>351 3.17 (1.75-5.73) <0.001 3.03 (1.66-5.39) < 0.001
Age     
17-20 1 -------------- 1 ----------
21-40 1.04 (0.81-1.31) 0.773 0.78 (0.62-1.24) 0.451
Gender     
Male 1 -------------- 1 ----------
Female 1.28 (0.99-1.67) 0.050 1.50 (1.10-2.03) 0.009
Place of residence     
Metropolitan areas 1 -------------- 1 ----------
Sub-urban or rural areas 1.18 (0.94-1.50) 0.154 1.23 (0.96-1.57) 0.094
Ethnicity     
Cypriot 1 -------------- 1 -----------
Greek/Other 1.32 (0.82-2.13) 0.253 1.89 (0.54-1.48) 0.662
Family status     
Single/divorce 1 ----------- 1 ----------
Married/living with partner 1.28 (0.77-1.90) 0.072 1.47 (0.29-1.74) 0.863
Employment     
Yes 1 ----------- 1 ----------
No 1.63 (0.90-1.47) <0.001 1.31 (1.01-1.55) 0.050
Academic year of study     
First 1 -------------- 1 -----------
Second 1.37 (1.01-1.86) 0.041 1.35 (0.97-1.86) 0.072
Third 1.09 (0.79-1.51) 0.590 0.98 (0.67-1.42) 0.915
Fourth 1.14 (0.80-1.63) 0.474 1.02 (0.62-1.70) 0.930
Faculty     
Geotechnical sciences and 1 -------------- 1 -----------
Environmental management Management and Economics 1.52 (0.92-2.50) 0.102 1.36 (0.81-2.30) 0.241
Applied Arts and Communication 1.46 (0.90-2.34) 0.122 1.36 (0.83-2.23) 0.221
Engineering and Technology 1.70 (0.90-2.67) 0.020 1.79 (1.12-2.86) 0.016
Health Sciences 1.01 (0.67-1.54) 0.947 0.91 (0.60-1.42) 0.702
  1. †Adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, place of residence, family status, employment status, year of study, faculty.
  2. Finally, in our study, the association between clinically significant depressive symptoms and life events (both number and severity) was statistically significant irrespective of academic year of study (all chi-square values < 0.05, results not shown in detail). As shown in Tables 6 and 7, while in the univariate analyses a higher prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was observed amongst sophomore students compared to freshmen (OR = 1.37, p = 0.041), the association with year of study did not persist after controlling for life events and other socio-demographic variables in multivariable models.