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Table 4 Relationship of socio-demographic variables and social-psychological factors with the daughters’ HPV vaccination intention

From: Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

Variables Univariate simple regression analysis among 75% of the daughters (n = 482) Multivariate backward regression analysis among 75% of the daughters (n = 452) Multivariate backward regression analysis among 25% of the daughters (n = 147)
Mean (standard deviation) or percentage Association1 Beta (standard error) Standardized Beta Beta (standard error) Standardized Beta
HPV vaccination uptake   .35** 0.36 (0.14) .09* 0.92 (0.25) .23**
Has not received three HPV-injections (reference) 52      
Has received three HPV-injections 48      
Sample   .00 0.15 (0.13) .04 0.11 (0.23) .03
Praeventis (reference) 64      
Online panel 36      
Socio-demographic variables       
Age 13.51 (0.51) .00     
Educational level daughter   .00     
Low (reference) 59%      
Intermediate 41%   0.22 (0.12) .06 −0.11 (0.21) -.03
Highest completed level of education of parents   .00     
Low (reference) 22%      
Intermediate 32%   0.08 (0.15) .02 0.18 (0.24) .04
High 46%   0.04 (0.15) .01 0.31 (0.23) .08
Country of birth mother   .00     
The Netherlands (reference) 74%      
Surinam/Antilles 7%   0.05 (0.24) .01 0.08 (0.41) .01
Turkey/Morocco 15%   −0.09 (0.19) -.02 0.25 (0.34) .04
Other 4%   0.08 (0.26) .01 −1.18 (0.45) -.13
Country of birth daughter   .00     
The Netherlands (reference) 92%      
Surinam/Antilles 2%   −0.74 (0.43) -.05 −0.03 (0.59) −0.00
Turkey/Morocco 3%   0.21 (0.33) .02 - -
Other 3%   0.35 (0.33) .03 1.62 (0.56) .13*
Protestant religion   .02*     
No (reference) 82%      
Yes 19%   0.02 (0.13) .00 −0.15 (0.23) -.03
Social psychological variables       
Knowledge about the HPV vaccination 3.59 (2.41) .00     
Risk perception (having received no HPV vaccination) −0.61 (1.39) .23** 0.19 (0.04) .13**   
Risk perception (having received the HPV vaccination) −1.49 (1.22) .00     
Attitude towards the HPV vaccination 2.43 (6.02) .62** 0.12 (0.01) .37** 0.14 (0.03) .39**
Negative outcome expectations of the HPV vaccination 5.66 (4.71) .09**     
Positive outcome expectations of the HPV vaccination −1.02 (4.17) .10**     
Anticipated regret about rejecting the HPV vaccination 3.24 (1.43) .27**    0.24 (0.08) .17*
Anticipated regret about receiving the vaccination 3.11 (1.52) .09**     
Beliefs about the HPV vaccination 2.11 (8.31) .47** 0.05 (0.01) .21**   
Relative effectiveness of the HPV vaccination −2.45 (2.61) .36**     
Ambivalence towards the HPV vaccination decision −0.11 (4.64) .00     
Confidence in authorities involved in the HPV vaccination 1.46 (3.49) .29**     
Subjective norms towards the HPV vaccination 13.87 (18.60) .46** 0.02 (0.00) .15** 0.03 (0.01) .23*
Descriptive norms towards the HPV vaccination 4.51 (1.42) .11**     
Self-efficacy expectations towards the HPV vaccination 1.43 (4.70) .06**     
HPV vaccination information processing 1.00 (3.16) .03**     
Habit strength towards the HPV vaccination −0.28 (3.02) .32** 0.08 (0.02) .12**   
Decisional conflict about the HPV vaccination – value clarity 1.92 (3.99) .02*     
Decisional conflict about the HPV vaccination – certainty 2.06 (4.12) .01     
Opinion about alternative medicine −0.28 (1.65) .00     
Past experience of the mother with cervical cancer   .00     
No (reference) 98%      
Yes 2%      
Past experience of the mother with other cancer forms   .00     
No (reference) 96%      
Yes 4%      
Past experience of the mother with abnormal pap smear   .00     
No (reference) 92%      
Yes 8%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with cervical cancer   .00     
No (reference) 87%      
Yes 13%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with other cancer forms   .00     
No (reference) 22%      
Yes 78%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with abnormal pap smear   .01     
No (reference) 86%      
Yes 14%      
Model fit for multivariate models       
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake     .36   .49
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake     .36   .49
F change of HPV vaccination uptake     257.28**   137.34**
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     .36   .49
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     .00   .00
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     0.16   0.58
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     .38   .54
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     .02   .05
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     1.41   1.54
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     .73   .77
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     .34   .24
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     109.17**   45.91**
  1. Notes 1) R**2; Mothers received questions about the HPV vaccination of their daughter, whereas daughters answered questions about the HPV vaccination of themselves; *p < .01; **p < .001.
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