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Table 1 Objectively measured family dog walking behaviour for intervention and control groups

From: Children, parents and pets exercising together (CPET): exploratory randomised controlled trial

  Baseline Follow-up    
  Intervention mean (SD) Control mean (SD) Intervention mean (SD) Control mean (SD) Intervention –control difference (95% CI) p value‡ Effect size (Cohen’s d)
  N = 15 N = 12 N = 15 N = 12    
Number of walks per week 2.7 (2.1) 2.6 (2.6) 2.6 (1.2) 2 (1.7) 0.5 (-0.4, 1.4) 0.19 0.23
Total duration of dog walking (mins/week) 53 (58) 25 (29) 47 (37) 23 (23) -4 (-25, 17) 0.12 0.10
Child mean accelerometer cpm* during dog walking 2117 (1289) 1953 (1136) 2784 (1279) 2490 (1724) 130 (-539, 799) 0.41 0.10
% time child spent walk in MVPA† 22.1 (21.4) 18.9 (18.6) 26.1 (21.7) 15.2 (21.7) 7.7 (-1.7, 17.1) 0.12 0.32
Parent mean accelerometer cpm* during dog walking 1996 (1673) 1518 (1205) 2216 (1237) 1601 (976) 137 (-486, 760) 0.39 0.10
% time parent spent walk in MVPA§ 45.3 (41.2) 31.7 (34.5) 42.0 (30.8) 20.3 (23.8) 8.1 (-6.4, 22.6) 0.11 0.22
Dog mean accelerometer cpm* during dog walking 3595 (2031) 3549 (2572) 4558 (1746) 3766 (2155) 746 (-345, 1837) 0.39 0.27
% time dog spent in light-mod PA¶ 60.4 (34.5) 69.4 (39.3) 55.2 (32.4) 37.6 (40.1) 26.6 (6.8, 46.4) 0.06 0.53
% time dog spent in vigorous PA** 19.6 (17.7) 13.9 (23.2) 24.7 (17.3) 12.7 (19.6) 6.3 (-4.2, 16.8) 0.03 0.24
  1. *cpm = counts per minute.
  2. †≥3200 accelerometer cpm.
  3. §≥1952 accelerometer cpm.
  4. ¶1352–5965 accelerometer cpm.
  5. **≥5696 accelerometer cpm.
  6. ‡Intervention and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance.
  7. Of the 28 families recruited, 1 parent and 1 dog (from the same family) returned invalid accelerometry data at baseline and were excluded from analysis.