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Table 2 Risk factors of NCDs and aging

From: Biobanking across the phenome - at the center of chronic disease research

Risk factor studied Disease or trait Acclerated aging and impaired function Reference
Smoking Humoral immunity Immune system aging [48]
  Inflammatory response Immune system aging [53]
  Heart rate variabiltiy Autnomous nervous system aging [54]
  Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
  Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
  Elastosis of the neck Skin aging [57]
  Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Obesity, BMI, high calorie intake, Impaired immune response Immune system aging [59]
Waist-hip ratio, skin-folds, CD8 Tcell activation Immune system aging [59]
Body weight Lipodystrophy Adipocyte aging [60]
  Heart rate variabiltiy Autnomous nervous system aging [61]
  Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
  Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
  Alopecia Hair aging [62]
  Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Dyslipidemia Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
  Alopecia Hair aging [62]
History of diabetes Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
  Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Hypertension, Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
High resting pulse Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
  Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
  Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Other chronic diseases, Immunosenescence Immune system aging [64]
Comorbidity Lipodystrophy Adipocyte aging [65]
  Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
  Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
  Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Medication intake Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
  Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
UV light/sun exposure Alopecia Hair aging [62]
Low sun exposure Elastosis of the neck Skin aging [57]
  Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Health behaviours Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Low level of mental activity Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Physical inactivity Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
  Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Depression Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Poor diet Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Weight loss/no weight gain Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Low education Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
  Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Psychosocial factors Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
  1. Content of table is illustrative, not exhaustive.