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Table 6 Odds ratio for variables of interest associated with gender for those living with diabetes

From: Exploring differences in Canadian adult men and women with Diabetes management: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey

   n Unadjusted
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Adjusted†
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Education 6933     
  Post-secondary   1.0   1.0  
  Less than high school   1.5 (1.2–1.9)* 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  High school   1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
  Some post-secondary   1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Income quintiles 6933     
  Fifth quintile (highest)   1.0   1.0  
  Fourth quintile   1.2 (0.9–1.5) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
  Third quintile   1.9 (1.4–2.5)* 1.6 (1.2–2.2)*
  Second quintile   2.1 (1.6–2.7)* 1.7 (1.2–2.3)*
  First quintile (lowest)   2.7 (2.0–3.7)* 1.8 (1.3–2.6)*
Marital status 6933     
  Married/common-law   1.0   1.0  
  Divorced, widowed, or separated   3.1 (2.6–3.7)* 3.5 (2.8–4.4)*
  Never married   1.7 (1.3–2.2)* 1.4 (1.1–1.9)*
BMI category 6933     
  Normal/underweight   1.0   1.0  
  Overweight   0.8 (0.6–0.9)* 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
  Obese   1.0 (0.9–1.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Hypertension‡ 4621     
  Does not have hypertension   1.0   1.0  
  Has hypertension   1.5 (1.2–1.7)* 2.0 (1.4–2.8)*
Heart disease‡ 4596     
  Does not have heart disease   1.0   1.0  
  Has heart disease   1.0 (0.8–1.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.0)*
Anxiety disorder 6929     
  Does not have an anxiety disorder   1.0   1.0  
  Has an anxiety disorder   2.5 (1.9–3.3)* 2.3 (1.7–3.2)*
Mood disorder 6916     
  Does not have a mood disorder   1.0    
  Has a mood disorder   2.7 (2.1–3.5)* 2.4 (1.8–3.1)*
Physical activity 6933     
  Moderately/sufficiently active   1.0   1.0  
  Inactive   1.5 (1.3–1.8)* 1.5 (1.2–1.8)*
Smoking status 6933     
  Current smoker   1.0   1.0  
  Former smoker   0.8 (0.6–1.0)* 0.8 (0.6–1.0)*
  Never-smoked   2.5 (2.0–3.2)* 2.2 (1.6–3.0)*
Alcohol consumption 6933     
  More than 1 drink a week   1.0   1.0  
  1 drink a week or less   3.4 (2.7–4.2)* 3.4 (2.7–4.2)*
  Non-drinker   5.0 (4.0–6.2)* 4.1 (3.2–5.4)*
Recommended fruit and vegetable consumption 6933     
  Not meeting recommendations   1.0   1.0  
  Meeting recommendations   1.9 (1.8–2.0)* 2.3 (1.8–2.9)*
Activity limitation^ 6901     
  No activity limitation   1.0   1.0  
  Activity limitation   1.4 (1.2–1.6) 1.1 (0.9–1.3)
Working status last week 5592     
  Had a job, was present last week   1.0   1.0  
  Had a job, was absent last week   1.1 (0.7–1.7) 1.1 (0.6–1.8)
  Did not have a job last week   1.8 (1.5–2.2)* 1.8 (1.4–2.4)*
  Permanently unable to find work   1.5 (1.1–2.0)* 1.1 (0.8–1.6)
Food avoidance      
  Does not avoid foods   1.0   1.0  
  Avoids food with fat || 1161 1.8 (1.3–2.5)* 2.1 (1.4–3.0)*
  Avoids foods with high calories || 1158 1.8 (1.3–2.3)* 2.2 (1.6–3.0)*
  Avoids foods with cholesterol|| 1755 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Concerned about food choice/avoidance      
  Not concerned   1.0   1.0  
  Concerned about weight || 1762 1.3 (1.0–1.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.9)
  Concerned about HD || 1757 1.3 (1.0–1.7)* 1.6 (1.1–2.2)*
  1. *OR is statistically significant when 95% confidence interval does not include 1.0; ordinal logistic regression, with survey expansion weights, modeled for the effect of being female compared with male.
  2. †Covariates were age, education, income, marital status, BMI, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, recommended fruit and vegetable consumption, and number of consultations with a medical doctor; ‡additional covariates for hypertension model included taking medications for high blood pressure and additional covariates for heart disease model included hypertension and currently taking medications for high blood pressure.
  3. ||These variables were only asked of respondents residing in Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia, and the North West Territories.
  4. ^Variable was derived from questions asking if the respondent had difficulty hearing, seeing, communicating, walking, climbing stairs, bending, leaning, or if they experience a long-term physical or mental condition or health problem that reduces the amount or the kind of activity.