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Table 2 Clinical and lifestyle characteristics of individuals living with and without diabetes by gender

From: Exploring differences in Canadian adult men and women with Diabetes management: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey

   Individuals without diabetes Individuals with diabetes
   Men Women Men Women
   Proportion (95% CI) Proportion (95% CI) Proportion (95% CI) Proportion (95% CI)
   Clinical characteristics
Body mass index (kg/m2)†         
  Underweight/normal weight 42.7 (42.0–43.4) 58.7 (58.0–59.3)* 23.6 (21.2–25.9) 25.7 (23.4–28.0)
  Overweight 40.7 (40.0–41.5) 27.0 (26.4–27.5)* 38.6 (36.2–41.0) 31.6 (29.2–34.0)*
  Obese 16.6 (16.1–17.1) 14.4 (13.9–14.8)* 37.9 (35.4–40.4) 42.8 (40.2–45.3)
Hypertension         
  Yes 14.3 (13.8–14.8) 15.8 (15.3–16.2)* 50.1 (47.5–52.7) 59.3 (56.7–61.8)*
  No 85.7 (85.2–86.2) 84.2 (83.8–84.7)* 49.9 (47.3–52.5) 40.8 (38.2–43.3)*
Medication for blood pressure         
  Yes 68.4 (67.0–69.9) 72.2 (71.1–73.4)* 89.4 (87.5–91.3) 89.9 (87.9–91.8)
  No 31.6 (30.1–33.0) 27.8 (26.6–29.0)* 10.6 (8.8–12.5) 10.2 (8.2–12.1)
Heart disease         
  Yes 4.5 (4.2–4.7) 3.8 (3.5–4.0)* 20.2 (17.9–22.5) 19.3 (17.3–21.2)
  No 95.6 (95.3–95.8) 96.2 (96.0–96.5)* 79.8 (77.5–82.2) 80.7 (78.8–82.7)
Suffers from effects of a stroke         
  Yes 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 3.0 (2.4–3.6) 4.5 (3.5–5.5)
  No 99.1 (99.0–99.2) 99.2 (99.2–99.3) 97.0 (96.4–97.6) 95.5 (94.5–96.5)
Anxiety disorder         
  Yes 3.7 (3.4–3.9) 7.3 (6.9–7.7)* 3.5 (2.7–4.3) 8.3 (7.1–9.4)*
  No 96.3 (96.1–96.6) 92.7 (92.4–93.1)* 96.5 (95.7–97.3) 91.8 (90.6–92.9)*
Mood disorder         
  Yes 4.7 (4.4–5.0) 8.6 (8.2–8.9)* 5.5 (4.4–6.5) 13.2 (11.5–14.9)*
  No 95.3 (95.0–95.6) 91.4 (91.1–91.8)* 94.5 (93.5–95.6) 86.8 (85.1–88.5)*
Overnight patient in past year         
  Yes 5.6 (5.3–5.9) 9.4 (9.1–9.8)* 14.7 (13.0–16.4) 16.4 (14.6–18.2)
  No 94.4 (94.1–94.7) 90.6 (90.2–91.0)* 85.3 (83.6–87.0) 83.6 (81.8–85.4)
Has a regular medical doctor         
  Yes 78.5 (78.0–79.1) 88.7 (88.2–89.1)* 93.8 (91.7–96.0) 96.1 (95.3–96.9)
  No 21.5 (20.9–22.0) 11.3 (10.9–11.8)* 6.2 (4.0–8.3) § 3.9 (3.1–4.8)
   Lifestyle characteristics
Physical activity Level         
  Inactive 47.6 (46.7–48.5) 53.2 (52.4–53.9)* 58.5 (56.0–61.0) 68.4 (65.9–70.8)*
  Moderately/sufficiently active 52.4 (51.5–53.3) 46.9 (46.1–47.6)* 41.5 (39.0–44.0) 31.6 (29.2–34.1)*
Smoking status         
  Never-smoked 30.2 (29.5–30.9) 42.7 (42.1–43.4)* 22.0 (19.4–24.6) 45.5 (42.7–48.4)*
  Former smoker 42.9 (42.2–43.6) 36.6 (36.0–37.2)* 58.8 (56.0–61.6) 38.5 (36.0–40.9)*
  Current smokers 27.0 (26.3–27.6) 20.7 (20.2–21.2)* 19.2 (17.0–21.4) 16.0 (14.0–18.0)
Alcohol consumption         
  More than 1 drink a week 42.3 (41.5–43.1) 25.1 (24.5–25.7)* 29.5 (27.1–31.9) 9.5 (8.1–10.8)*
  1 drink a week or less 44.4 (43.7–45.2) 53.6 (52.9–54.3)* 43.0 (40.3–45.8) 46.5 (44.0–49.1)
  Non-drinker 13.3 (12.8–13.8) 21.3 (20.7–21.9)* 27.5 (24.8–30.2) 44.0 (41.4–46.6)*
Fruit/vegetable consumption†         
  Meets daily recommendations 11.3 (10.8–11.7) 23.0 (22.4–23.7)* 11.8 (10.2–13.4) 20.4 (18.3–22.4)*
  Insufficient daily intake 88.8 (88.3–89.2) 77.0 (76.3–77.6)* 88.2 (86.6–89.8) 79.7 (77.6–81.7)*
Self-perceived general health         
  Excellent/very good 62.1 (61.4–62.8) 60.8 (60.2–61.5) 22.2 (20.2–24.1) 21.7 (19.2–24.1)
  Good 28.8 (28.1–29.4) 28.7 (28.1–29.3) 41.3 (38.6–44.0) 39.8 (37.1–42.4)
  Fair/poor 9.1 (8.8–9.5) 10.5 (10.1–10.9)* 36.5 (33.7–39.4) 38.6 (35.9–41.2)
Self-perceived mental health         
  Excellent/very good 75.8 (75.2–76.4) 74.2 (73.6–74.8)* 65.6 (62.9–68.4) 62.1 (59.5–64.7)
  Good 19.6 (19.1–20.2) 20.9 (20.3–21.4)* 26.1 (23.5–28.7) 28.0 (25.6–30.4)
  Fair/poor 4.6 (4.3–4.9) 5.0 (4.7–5.3) 8.3 (6.7–9.9) 9.9 (8.2–11.6)
Satisfaction with life in general         
  Negative (dissatisfied) 2.8 (2.6–3.1) 2.9 (2.7–3.2) 7.2 (5.0–9.4) 7.5 (6.2–8.8)
  Neutral 5.4 (5.0–5.7) 5.4 (5.1–5.7) 7.7 (6.1–9.2) 7.9 (6.4–9.5)
  Positive (satisfied) 91.8 (91.4–92.3) 91.7 (91.3–92.1) 85.2 (82.7–87.6) 84.6 (82.5–86.6)
Stress in life         
  Quite a bit 36.5 (35.7–37.2) 33.7 (33.1–34.3)* 44.5 (41.7–47.2) 40.8 (38.3–43.4)
  A bit 41.8 (41.1–42.5) 42.3 (41.6–43.0) 33.5 (31.1–35.8) 37.7 (35.3–40.2)
  Not very stressed 21.7 (21.1–22.3) 24.0 (23.4–24.6)* 22.1 (19.2–24.9) 21.4 (19.1–23.7)
  1. †Body Mass Index categories were based on WHO classification cut-offs: underweight and normal weight (≤24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.99 kg/m2), obese (≥30.00 kg/m2); Fruit/Vegetable Consumption based on 2007 guidelines and dependent upon age and gender.
  2. *Estimates between men and women with and without diabetes are significantly different, based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
  3. §This estimate is considered to be of marginal quality because of the high sampling variability associated with it.