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Table 1 Odds ratios for factors on health, financial hardship and social support for both Wave I and II a

From: The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden – a 1 year follow-up study

   PHASE I PHASE II
   OR Crude (95% CI) OR Controlled for age and PGSI (95% CI) OR Crude for CSOs (95% CI) OR for CSOs Controlled for age and PGSI (95% CI)
   Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
Health Problem gambling (PGSI3+) 3.2 (2.2–4.6)*** 0.7 (0.3–1.6)ns - 4.1 (2.6–6.5)*** 0.7 (0.2–1.7)ns - -
Good health 1.0 (0.8–1.2)ns 0.9 (0.8–1.1)ns 0.8 (0.7–1.0)ns 0.8 (0.6–0.9)* 1.1 (0.8–1.3)ns 1.0 (0.8–1.2)ns 0.9 (0.7–1.1)ns 0.8 (0.6–1.0)*
Mental health problem (Kessler 6) 1.7 (1.4–2.0)*** 1.8 (1.5–2.2) *** 1.5 (1.2–1.7)*** 1.6 (1.4–1.9)*** 1.8 (1.5–2.2)*** 2.1 (1.7–2.5)*** 1.6 (1.3–2.0)*** 1.9 (1.5–2.3)***
Risky alcohol behavior (AUDIT) 2.4 (2.0–2.9)*** 1.8 (1.4–2.3)*** 2.0 (1.6–2.4)*** 1.4 (1.0–1.8)* 2.8 (2.2–3.4)*** 1.7 (1.2–2.5)** 2.1 (1.7–2.7)*** 1.4 (0.9–2.0)ns
Sick leave (self-reported) 0.9 (0.6–1.2)ns 1.5 (1.2–1.9)** 1.1 (0.8–1.5)ns 2.0 (1.6–2.5)*** - - -- -
Social support and fear of losing employment Fear of losing employment 1.7 (1.3–2.1)*** 1.1 (0.8–1.5)ns 1.6 (1.2–2.1)*** 1.0 (0.7–1.4)ns 1.2 (0.9–1.7)ns 0.9 (0.6–1.4)ns 1.2 (0.8–1.7)ns 0.8 (0.6–1.3)ns
Practical help 1.2 (0.8–1.8)ns 0.6 (0.3–0.9)* 1.1 (0.7–1.6)ns 0.5 (0.3–0.8)** - - - -
Someone to share feelings with 0.9 (0.7–1.2)ns 0.7 (0.5–1.0)* 0.9 (0.7–1.2)ns 0.5 (0.4–0.7)*** - - - -
Violence in last 12 months 3.3 (2.4–4.4)*** 7.2 (4.5–11.5)*** 2.6 (1.9–3.5)*** 5.9 (3.7–9.4)*** - - - -
Financial hardship Difficult pay bills in last 12 months 1.8 (1.4–2.2)*** 1.7 (1.4–2.1)*** 1.6 (1.3–2.0)*** 1.5 (1.2–1.9)*** 1.6 (1.2–2.1)** 2.5 (2.0–3.3)*** 1.2 (0.9–1.7)ns 2.3 (1.7–3.0)***
Living on social welfare 1.9 (1.3–2.8)** 1.8 (1.3–2.6)** 1.5 (1.0–2.2)* 1.7 (1.2–2.5)** - - - -
Life events in last 12 months More argument with someone close - - - - 2.6 (1.8–3.6)*** 2.5 (1.8–3.4)*** 2.0 (1.4–2.9)*** 2.1 (1.5–2.9)***
Problem at work - - - - 1.4 (1.0–1.9)* 1.4 (1.0–1.9)* 1.3 (0.9–1.7)ns 1.4 (1.0–1.8)*
Legal problems - - - - 2.6 (1.8–3.8)*** 1.3 (0.8–2.2)ns 2.4 (1.6–3.6)*** 1.3 (0.8–2.1)ns
Divorce or separation - - - - 1.6 (1.2–2.3)** 2.2 (1.5–3.1)*** 1.4 (1.0–1.9)ns 1.9 (1.4–2.8)***
Worse economy - - - - 1.3 (1.0–1.8)ns 1.2 (0.9–1.6)ns 1.2 (0.9–1.6)ns 1.2 (0.9–1.6)ns
Better economy - - - - 1.2 (0.9–1.7)ns 1.2 (0.9–1.7)ns 1.0 (0.8–1.3)ns 1.1 (0.8–1.5)ns
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. aBold text indicate significant findings.