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Table 5 Adjusted mean differences § in neighborhood characteristics associated with individual and census tract level variables

From: Perceived neighborhood problems: multilevel analysis to evaluate psychometric properties in a Southern adult Brazilian population

Variables Sum of all problems (both scales) Neighborhood physical problems Neighborhood social disorder
Individual level (n = 1,720)    
Model 1 – Sociodemographic    
Gender    
 Male Ref Ref Ref
 Female 0.02 (-0.01,0.05) 0.03 (-0.01,0.06) 0.01 (-0.02,0.05)
Race/Skin color    
 White Ref Ref Ref
 Brown -0.03 (-0.11,0.05) -0.01 (-0.09,0.08) -0.05 (-0.14,0.04)
 Black 0.02 (-0.14,0.17) 0.03 (-0.13,0.19) -0.01 (-0.17,0.15)
Age bands (years)    
 20-29 Ref Ref Ref
 30-39 0.04 (-0.01,0.09) 0.04 (-0.01,0.09) 0.04 (-0.03,0.10)
 40-49 0.00 (-0.04,0.04) -0.01 (-0.05,0.04) 0.01 (-0.05,0.07)
 50-59 -0.07 (-0.11,-0.02)* -0.08 (-0.13,-0.02)* -0.06 (-0.12,0.00)
Length of neighborhood residence time    
 0-5 yrs Ref Ref Ref
 5.01-16.5 yrs 0.08 (0.03,0.12)* 0.03 (-0.02,0.07) 0.14 (0.08,0.20)**
 16.51-59 yrs 0.07 (0.02,0.12)* 0.01 (-0.04,0.06) 0.14 (0.08,0.21)**
ICC 0.24 0.27 0.28
Model 2 - Socioeconomic    
Family per capita income (R$)    
 Lower tertile Ref Ref Ref
 Intermediate tertile 0.00 (-0.05,0.05) 0.01 (-0.04,0.06) -0.02 (-0.08,0.05)
 Higher tertile -0.02 (-0.07,0.03) -0.01 (-0.06,0.05) -0.03 (-0.10,0.03)
Educational attainment (years)    
 0-4 -0.06 (-0.15,0.03) -0.08 (-0.17,0.01) -0.02 (-0.13,0.09)
 5-8 -0.05 (-0.11,0.01) -0.08 (-0.14,-0.02)* -0.01 (-0.09,0.07)
 9-11 -0.05 (-0.10,-0.01)* -0.07 (-0.13,-0.02)* -0.03 (-0.09,0.02)
 12 and more Ref Ref Ref
Occupational status    
 Non manual Ref Ref Ref
 Manual 0.02 (-0.03,0.07) 0.03 (-0.02,0.08) 0.00 (-0.05,0.06)
 Others -0.02 (-0.10,0.05) -0.02 (-0.10,0.06) -0.03 (-0.11,0.05)
ICC 0.24 0.28 0.28
Model 3 - Census tract level (n = 63)    
Income    
 Lower Ref Ref Ref
 Intermediate -0.04 (-0.16,0.07) -0.05 (-0.16,0.06) -0.03 (-0.18,0.12)
 Higher -0.14 (-0.24,-0.04)* -0.17 (-0.27,-0.06)* -0.10 (-0.24,0.04)
ICC 0.22 0.25 0.27
  1. Florianopolis, Brazil, 2009.
  2. *p 0.05 to 0.001 **p <0.001; § = All analyses were adjusted for sample weights. Ref = Reference, ICC = intraneighborhood correlation.
  3. Model 1: Adjusted by demographic variables (gender, skin color, age, and length of time in neighborhood).
  4. Model 2: Adjusted by demographic (gender, skin color, age, and length of time in neighborhood) and, socioeconomic variables (familiar per capita income, educational attainment and occupational status).
  5. Model 3: Adjusted by demographic (gender, skin color, age, and length of time in neighborhood), socioeconomic (familiar per capita income, educational attainment and occupational status), and census tract variables (per capita familiar income).