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Table 2 Demographic and baseline characteristics of the experimental and control groups ( N = 142)

From: Effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent–child relationship and reducing harsh parenting practices and parental stress in preparing children for their transition to primary school: a randomised controlled trial

  n(%) χ 2 p
  Experimental (n = 72) Control (n = 70)
Gender of parent     
  Male 8 (11.1) 10 (14.3) 0.10 0.75 ns
  Female 64 (88.9) 60 (85.7)   
Age range for parents     
  20-29 7 (9.7) 8 (11.4) 5.44 0.14 ns
  30-39 46 (63.9) 34 (48.6)   
  40-49 14 (19.5) 25 (35.7)   
  50 or above 5 (6.9) 3 (4.3)   
Parents’ education attainment     
  No formal education 3 (4.2) 2 (2.9) 0.60 0.96 ns
  Primary 4 (5.6) 5 (7.1)   
  Lower secondary 26 (36.1) 23 (32.9)   
  Upper secondary 32 (44.4) 34 (48.5)   
  Tertiary 7 (9.7) 6 (8.6)   
  M (SD) t p
Harsh parenting 35.61 (7.62) 35.44 (7.40) 0.13 0.89 ns
Parent–child relationship 8.31 (1.31) 8.31 (1.20) −0.04 0.96 ns
Parental stress 67.54 (6.34) 66.31 (6.23) 1.17 0.25 ns
  1. ns = Not significant at p > 0.05.