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Table 1 Intervention protocol for parents

From: Effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent–child relationship and reducing harsh parenting practices and parental stress in preparing children for their transition to primary school: a randomised controlled trial

Session Objectives Activities
  One 1. To understand children need from parents when they move to primary school; • Introduction: Introduce the objectives and general rules of the programme. Parents are encouraged to be active in participation in group activities, such as role play and discussion.
• Sharing: Facilitators invite parents to share how they interact with their child at home.
• Role play: Facilitators invite two parents to demonstrate an interaction between parent and child. Scenario: The child reported the difficulties encountered in the school to a parent.
• Group discussion: Identify strategies to enhance smooth interaction between parent and child.
2. To learn the importance of parent involvement in preparing, and dealing with the transition;
• Round up: Facilitators sum up the content that discussed in this session and encourage parents to practice the skills at home.
  3. To learn the important skills of active listening
  Two 1. To learn the consequences of harsh parenting • Review: Facilitators review the skills or concepts discussed in previous sessions
• Sharing: Facilitators invite parents to share their methods in rearing their children
2. To engage in less harsh parenting practices  
• Role play: Scenario: Parents were invited to demonstrate a quarrel they might have with their child and the usual ways they dealt with it.
• Group discussion: Alternative ways for handling the quarrel and controlling emotions.
   • Round up: Facilitators sum up the content that discussed in this session and encourage parents to engage in less harsh parenting practices at home.
  Three 1. To learn positive interaction • Review: Facilitators review the skills or concepts discussed in previous sessions
2. To learn and practice parenting skill: expressing love and concern; acknowledge efforts taking the point of view of their children and praise their children • Sharing: Facilitators invite parents to share whether they would often use praise and encouragement in rearing their children.
• Role play: Interaction between parent and child. Scenario: When receiving unfavourable report about the child’s school performance.
• Group discussion: The pros and cons of using praise and encouragement in rearing their children.
   • Round up: Facilitators sum up the content that discussed in this session and encourage parents to use more praise and encourage.
  Four To set reasonable expectations of their children • Review: Facilitators review the skills or concepts discussed in previous sessions.
To learn positive interaction when dealing with their children’s homework, tests and examination • Sharing: Facilitators invite parents to share their expectations of their children.
• Group discussion: What are the consequence of having unreasonable expectations of their children.
• Exercise: Facilitators ask parents to think about and write down their own reasonable expectations of their children.
• Round up: Facilitators sum up the content that discussed in this session and encourage parents to set reasonable expectations of their children.