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Table 3 Association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, without and with adjustments for individual-level variables

From: Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study

  Neighbourhood-level without adjustments Neighbourhood-level with adjustments*
Obs Exp O/E (95% CI) RR Obs Exp O/E (95% CI) RR
Neighbourhood purchasing power §
 <10 61 79.9 0.76 (0.58-0.98) 0.80 60 54.6 0.93 (0.71-1.20) 0.97
 10–19.9 132 147.1 0.90 (0.76-1.06) 0.91 117 123.3 0.95 (0.79-1.14) 0.97
 20–29.9 251 236.2 1.06 (0.94-1.20) 1.06 229 233.5 0.98 (0.86-1.12) 0.99
 30+ 70 50.8 1.38 (1.07-1.74) 1.30** 65 49.7 1.31 (1.01-1.67) 1.20**
  1. Results expressed as observed (Obs) and expected (Exp) numbers of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age, obtained from multi-level analyses, without and with adjustment for individual-level variables.
  2. *By stratification of maternal age (≤20, 21+), maternal smoking (no, yes) and parental education (both parents with post-secondary education;
  3. one parent with this educational level; or none).
  4. Obs/Exp, with 95% confidence interval.
  5. Relative risk of discontinuing of breast-feeding at four months of age estimated from a multi-level analysis; **indicates an elevated RR with posterior probability, Pr (RR > 1│data), of >95%.
  6. §Proportion (%) of families with low neighbourhood household purchasing power (according to Swedish standards; < USD 19 500 household purchasing power) among all resident families with at least one child (up to 19 years old) in a neighbourhood area (parish). Neighbourhood household purchasing power was defined as total family disposable income adjusted for the composition of the family (number of adults and children).