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Table 2 Association between father’s past vigorous physical activity a (VPA) frequency and youth’s VPA

From: Multivariable analysis of the association between fathers’ and youths’ physical activity in the United States

  Panel 1: Whether youth participates in weekly VPA
Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
All (N = 887) 1.134*** 1.141*** 1.135*** 1.145***
(1.042 - 1.234) (1.046 - 1.243) (1.043 - 1.236) (1.049 - 1.250)
Male (N = 453) 1.053 1.060 1.060 1.057
(0.940 - 1.180) (0.943 - 1.191) (0.944 - 1.191) (0.941 - 1.189)
Female (N = 434) 1.188*** 1.186*** 1.171*** 1.200***
(1.059 - 1.332) (1.057 - 1.331) (1.048 - 1.308) (1.069 - 1.347)
  Panel 2: Youths’ weekly VPA frequency (i.e. days/week)
Incident rate ratio (95% confidence interval)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
All (N = 887) 1.026** 1.028** 1.027** 1.031**
(1.001 - 1.052) (1.003 - 1.054) (1.003 - 1.053) (1.006 - 1.057)
Male (N = 453) 0.995 0.996 0.997 0.996
(0.959 - 1.032) (0.960 - 1.034) (0.961 - 1.034) (0.961 - 1.031)
Female (N = 434) 1.047*** 1.051*** 1.045*** 1.055***
(1.014 - 1.082) (1.017 - 1.086) (1.013 - 1.079) (1.022 - 1.089)
Control measures:     
Child characteristicsb YES YES YES YES
Family characteristicsc YES YES YES NO
Contextual measuresd YES YES NO NO
Mother’s past VPAe YES NO NO NO
  1. Notes: Odd ratios (estimated coefficients “βi” transformed to “eβi”) and exponentiated confidence intervals in parenthesis that are robust and clustered using family identifiers are reported from the logistic proability regression analysis for the “Whether Youth Participates in Any Weekly VPA” outcome.
  2. Rate ratios (estimated coefficients “βi” transformed to “eβi” ) and exponentiated confidence intervals in parenthesis that are robust and clustered using family identifiers are reported from negative binomial count data regression analysis for the “Number of Days per Week Youth Participates in VPA” outcome.
  3. All regressions are weighted.
  4. *** denotes significance at p≤0.01; ** denotes significance at p≤0.05; + denotes significance at p≤0.10.
  5. a The independent variable of interest, “Father’s past vigorous physical activity frequency” is a continuous measure of weekly number of times of father’s past (lagged t-2 = 2001) VPA.
  6. b Child characteristics include the following measures: Age, gender, race.
  7. cFamily Characteristics include the following measures: Mother’s Education, Mother’s Work Hours, Family Income.
  8. dContextual Measures include the following: Local Area Physical Activity-Related Facility Availability, Local Area Median Household Income, Local Area Degree of Urbanization.
  9. e “Mother’s Past VPA” is the lagged (t-2 = 2001) weekly number of times of vigorous physical activity participation of child’s mother.
  10. McFadden’s Adjusted R-squares for Model 1 (i.e. fully-adjusted model) from the logistic regression analyses reported in Panel 1 are 0.173, 0.137, and 0.258 for the full, male, and female sub-samples, respectively.
  11. McFadden’s Adjusted R-squares for Model 1 (i.e. fully-adjusted model) from the negative binomial regression analyses reported in Panel 2 are 0.026, 0.015, and 0.044 for the full, male, and female sub-samples, respectively.