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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants according to amount of walking for errands and living arrangements

From: Environmental mobility barriers and walking for errands among older people who live alone vs. with others

  LOWER MODWER HIGWER p-value* Living alone Living with others p-value†
  n = 96 n = 381 n = 166   n = 381 n = 276  
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD   Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Age (years) 77.5 ± 2.0 77.6 ± 2.0 77.6 ± 1.9 0.875 77.8 ± 2.0 77.3 ± 1.9 0.002
Education (years) 8.9 ± 4.2 9.1 ± 4.0 9.3 ± 4.8 0.723 8.6 ± 4.1 9.8 ± 4.3 0.001
Chronic conditions (number) 3.8 ± 2.3 3.0 ± 1.9 2.7 ± 1.8 < 0.001 3.1 ± 2.0 2.9 ± 1.9 0.051
Walking speed (m/s) 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.3 < 0.001 1.3 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 < 0.001
CES-D (score) 11.2 ± 8.2 10.5 ± 7.5 8.8 ± 7.2 0.020 10.4 ± 7.6 9.9 ± 7.6 0.375
Walking for errands
    Distance/week 1.2 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.8 13.5 ± 4.5 < 0.001 6.6 ± 4.5 6.2 ± 5.9 0.456
    Frequency/week 1.4 ± 1.9 3.8 ± 1.7 5.9 ± 1.5 < 0.001 4.3 ± 2.0 3.6 ± 2.3 < 0.001
  % % %   % %  
Female 56 83 69 < 0.001 90 54 < 0.001
Living alone 30 65 59 < 0.001    
Use of a cane (indoors or outdoors) 22 12 8 0.003 14 10 0.075
Perceived financial situation     0.604    < 0.001
    Good or very good 40 41 45   35 50  
    Very bad, bad or moderate 60 59 55   65 50  
Environmental mobility barriers
    Distances 31 18 8 < 0.001 21 15 0.049
    Terrain 28 36 29 0.131 38 27 0.004
    Traffic 19 22 19 0.542 22 20 0.534
    Entrance 25 22 15 0.107 23 16 0.020
Amount of walking for errands        < 0.001
    Low      8 24  
    Moderate      85 66  
    High      7 10  
  1. *one-way ANOVA & Chi-square.
  2. † t-t est & Chi-square.
  3. SD Standard Deviation.
  4. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
  5. LOWER Low amount of walking for errands, MODWER Moderate amount of walking for errands, HIGWER High amount of walking for errands.
  6. NOTE: Environmental mobility barriers studied were Traffic (noisy traffic and dangerous crossroads), Terrain (hilly terrain and poor street condition), Distances (long distance to services and lack of resting places), and Entrance (outdoor stairs present, indoor stairs present, no elevator, heavy doors, slippery floor and inadequate lighting). LOWER: ≤ 1.5 km/week or at most once a week; HIGWER: ≥ 8.5 km/week (highest quartile); MODWER: those who did not fall into LOWER or HIGWER categories.