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Table 5 Policies and outcomes for child care and early childhood education

From: A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies

Policy Sweden Netherlands Canada United States Cuba
Child care centres (formal or family-based) [42, 4649]
Age 1-5 years 3 mos-4 years Birth-6 years Birth-6 years 6 mos-5 years
Hours of operation Working days Working days Working days Working days Working days
Parental contribution Mainly tax funded with some income-based parent fees 44% Vary widely Vary widely Many free, although some up to 100%
Government contribution Income-based (up to 100%) Income- based (3.5-100%) Vary widely Vary widely Up to 100%
Pre-school [50, 51]
Age 1-5 years 2-4 years 2-6 years 3-5 years 5 years
Hours of operation Work days 3 x ½ day/week 2-3 hours/day Varies Twice weekly
Financing Mainly tax-funded, parent fees based on income and number of children Municipally-funded, may charge a fee to parents Tax-funded and/or parent fees Tax-funded and/or parent fees Government-funded
Kindergarten (varies by state or province in Canada and the United States)
Age may start 6 years 4 years 4 or 5 years 5 years 4-6 years
Compulsory age of start 7 years 5 years 6 years 5 or 6 years 7 years (Grade 1)
School readiness [2, 5255] No equivalent data No equivalent data EDI (% vulnerable) 25% Ontario, 31% British Columbia, 29.1% Manitoba (not ready 1 or more domains for all) 21 states have no statewide readiness assessments; 6 states publish school readiness data; instruments vary e.g., 17% vulnerable on MMSR* in Maryland 13% unsatisfactory development in key domains (motor skills, cognition, social-personal and personal hygiene)
CDI 2005-2010 [58] 1.85 0.93 0.74 2.86 2.27
Reading literacy achievement aged 15 (score) (2003) [45] 514 513 528 495 No equivalent data
Mathematics literacy achievement aged 15 (score) (2003) [45] 509 538 532 483 No equivalent data
Science literacy achievement aged 15 (score) (2003) [45] 506 524 519 491 No equivalent data
  1. *MMSR is the Maryland Model for School Readiness.