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Table 4 Distribution of the outcome variables before and after the intervention

From: LINDA – a solution-focused low-intensity intervention aimed at improving health behaviors of young females: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

  Intervention group (ITT) Control group Intervention group (PP)
  N = 1,349 N = 1,338 Nc
Outcome variable Before (%) After (%) pd Before (%) After (%) pd Before (%) After (%) pd
Physical activity level (n = 1,330)   <0.001 (n = 1,323)   <0.001 (n = 629)   <0.001
 Inactive 25.5 19.8   29.5 23.4   34.0 23.4  
 Walking,cycling etc. > 4 h/wk 37.4 39.9   34.7 40.7   40.2 42.3  
 Dedicat. fitness training or compet. athl. > 3 h/wk 37.1 40.2   35.8 35.8   25.8 34.3  
Meal regularity          
Breakfast (n = 1,344)   0.501 (n = 1,332)   0.964 (n = 482)   0.222
 Every day 57.1 58.9   55.9 55.4   52.7 55.8  
 4–6 times/wk 16.4 16.1   17.9 17.9   18.5 18.9  
 1–3 times/wk 15.4 14.8   14.7 15.3   16.2 14.5  
 <1 time/wk 11.1 10.2   11.5 11.3   12.7 10.8  
Lunch (n = 1,345)   0.254 (n = 1,336)   0.346 (n = 486)   0.254
 Every day 46.8 45.9   47.4 46.6   40.5 44.2  
 4–6 times/wk 35.9 36.1   34.2 34.3   37.9 35.2  
 1–3 times/wk 12.8 14.1   14.6 13.6   15.8 16.7  
 <1 time/wk 4.5 3.8   3.8 5.5   5.8 3.9  
Dinner (n = 1,340)   0.006 (n = 1,334)   <0.001 (n = 484)   0.748
 Every day 29.8 25.6   32.5 26.5   23.8 24.4  
 4–6 times/wk 38.3 36.6   36.3 37.1   38.2 38.2  
 1–3 times/wk 25.8 30.3   26.2 29.7   30.6 28.5  
 <1 time/wk 6.1 7.5   5.0 6.7   7.4 8.9  
Bedtime before school/workdays (n = 1,343)   0.049 (n = 1,317)   <0.001 (n = 266)   0.318
 ≤22:00 13.4 13.5   14.0 12.6   7.1 10.5  
 22:30 27.3 26.3   27.0 22.6   22.6 20.7  
 23:00 30.0 30.9   29.5 31.8   25.6 28.2  
 23:30 15.5 13.0   14.4 14.0   22.9 22.2  
 ≥24:00 13.8 16.4   15.1 19.0   21.8 18.4  
BMI class (n = 1,243)   <0.001 (n = 1,293)   <0.001 (n = 918)   <0.001
 < 18.5 6.4 4.3   6.2 3.8   5.2 4.1  
 18.5–24.9 73.8 70.0   71.8 68.2   73.3 69.2  
 25.0–29.9 15.0 19.7   16.6 20.2   15.4 19.4  
 ≥ 30 4.9 6.0   5.4 7.8   6.1 7.3  
  1. The outcome variables are analyzed in the intervention group (ITT) according to the intention-to-treat principlea, and in the intervention group (PP) according to the per-protocol principleb.
  2. aAll participants in the intervention arm who completed the questionnaire both at the baseline and at the end of the intervention period, and were not excluded for pregnancy during the intervention period.
  3. bThe participants in the intervention arm who completed the questionnaire both at the baseline and at the end of the intervention period, were not excluded for pregnancy during the intervention period, AND chose to discuss healthy physical activity and/or dietary behaviors and/or sleeping behaviors with the study nurses.
  4. cThe size of the intervention group in the per-protocol analyses varied according to the outcome variable as follows: Regarding change in physical activity level, participants who chose to discuss (at least) their physical activity behaviors (n = 637) were included. A valid answer to the question assessing physical activity was given by n = 629. Regarding change in meal regularity, participants who chose to discuss (at least) their dietary behaviors (n = 486) were included. Regarding change in bedtime, participants who chose to discuss (at least) their sleeping behaviors (n = 269) were included. Regarding change in BMI, participants who chose to discuss either their physical activity or dietary behaviors or sleeping behaviors, or two or three of these (n = 957) were included.
  5. dMcNemar-Bowker test for testing the within-group change.