Skip to main content

Table 3 Changes in the outcome variables – intention-to-treat analysis a

From: LINDA – a solution-focused low-intensity intervention aimed at improving health behaviors of young females: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

Outcome variable Intervention group (ITT) N = 1,349 Control group (CTRL) N = 1,338 Difference between groups (ITT vs. CTRL)
  % % pb
Overall impact c on the target health behaviors under consideration (n = 1,307) (n = 1,292) 0.006
Improved 37.0 31.4  
No change 28.1 28.7  
Declined 34.9 39.9  
Change in physical activity level (n = 1,330) (n = 1,323) 0.771
Increased 23.8 23.1  
No change 58.8 58.5  
Decreased 17.4 18.4  
Change in meal regularity    
Breakfast (n = 1,344) (n = 1,332) 0.440
 More regular 20.1 20.0  
 No change 62.1 60.2  
 More irregular 17.9 19.7  
Lunch (n = 1,345) (n = 1,336) 0.730
 More regular 25.9 25.0  
 No change 48.8 48.5  
 More irregular 25.3 26.5  
Dinner (n = 1,340) (n = 1,334) 0.629
 More regular 22.4 22.6  
 No change 47.0 45.3  
 More irregular 30.6 32.1  
Change in the bedtime before school-/work-days (n = 1,343) (n = 1,317) 0.061
Earlier 31.7 27.7  
No change 34.3 35.2  
Later 34.0 37.1  
  Median (IQR) Median (IQR) p d
Change in BMI (n = 1,244) (n = 1,294)  
All 0.55 (1.59) 0.51 (1.75) 0.769
BMI classes (before the intervention):    
 BMI < 18.5 0.88 (1.21) 0.62 (1.30) 0.919
 BMI 18.5–24.9 0.54 (1.55) 0.49 (1.57) 0.561
 BMI 25.0–29.9 0.39 (2.08) 0.62 (2.55) 0.805
 BMI ≥ 30 0.65 (3.01) 0.23 (3.80) 0.914
  1. aAll participants in the intervention and control arm who completed the questionnaire both at the baseline and at the end of the intervention period, and were not excluded for pregnancy during the intervention period.
  2. bPearson’s Chi-square test.
  3. cNet effect (sum of changes) in the three health behaviors under choice: physical activity, meal regularity and bedtime before school- or work-days.
  4. dMann–Whitney test. CTRL = control, IQR = interquartile range.