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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratio for HIV prevalence (Model M1), HIV testing (Model M2) and HIV risk (Model M3) perception within social economic groups by background characteristics

From: Socio-economic inequality and HIV in South Africa

  Model M1: HIV prevalence   Model M2: HIV testing   Model M3: HIV risk perception  
  Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)     Std. err Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)     Std. err Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)     Std. err
Poor SEI (n = 3,190)   (n = 3,947)   (n = 3,933)  
Sex: Female vs. Male 2.21*** 0.30 2.81*** 0.28 1.59*** 0.14
Race: Blacks vs. Other Races 7.92*** 2.38    2.74*** 0.63
Geographical Location (Urban Formala)       
Urban Informal       
Rural Informal 0.66** 0.12 0.75** 0.10   
Rural Formal      1.44** 0.27
Education (Secondarya)       
No schooling    0.35*** 0.07   
Less secondary    0.61*** 0.08   
Stigma Score: High vs. Low    0.76*** 0.07 0.77*** 0.07
Information Access: High vs. Low      0.75** 0.09
Middle SEI (n = 3,726)   (n = 4,753)   (n = 4,748)  
Sex: Female vs. Male 1.66*** 0.30 1.71*** 0.17 1.33** 0.15
Race: Blacks vs. Other Races 10.42*** 2.50 0.83* 0.09 4.10*** 0.65
Geographical Location (Urban Formala)       
Urban Informal 1.61** 0.30    1.43* 0.27
Education (Secondarya)       
No schooling    0.24*** 0.07   
Less secondary    0.49*** 0.05   
Tertially 0.54* 0.18 1.77*** 0.31   
Stigma Score: High vs. Low 0.75* 0.12 0.76*** 0.07   
Information Access: High vs. Low 0.76* 0.12    0.68*** 0.08
Upper SEI (n = 1,926)   (n = 2,727)   (n = 2,728)  
Sex: Female vs. Male    1.72*** 0.24   
Race: Blacks vs. Other Races 49.02*** 27.68    5.72*** 1.42
Geographical Location (Urban Formala)       
Urban Informal    2.87* 1.65   
Education (Secondarya)       
No schooling    0.23* 0.19   
Less secondary 2.10* 0.84 0.40*** 0.07   
Tertially    2.26*** 0.44 0.54* 0.19
Stigma Score: High vs. Low 0.42* 0.21 0.79* 0.11   
  1. aReference group; ***significant at .1%; **significant at 1% ; *significant at 5%.