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Table 6 The full IBM-WASH framework applied to the use of child potties

From: The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

Levels Contextual factors Psychosocial factors Technology factors
Societal/Structural Rainy and dry seasons and their effect on child defecation habits. Type of soil Leadership / advocacy for use of child potties Manufacturing capacity for child potties; national policies re: child defecation
Community Access to latrines, sewers, potable water in the community Shared values, collective efficacy for community-wide use of potties Availability and distribution of child potties in the community
Interpersonal/Household Household members and division of labour related to child-care and disposal of child faeces; condition of the latrine Injunctive norms, descriptive norms for child potty use; responsibility for cleaning potty at household level Sharing of access to product, modelling/demonstration of use of product
Individual Wealth, education and employment of caretaker of child; age and developmental stage of child and their effect on potty use Self-efficacy for potty training of child and correct use of potty; knowledge of diarrheal diseases; disgust and perceived threat related to child faeces in the household or courtyard Strengths and weaknesses of child potties for end-users; adaptation of design to respond to consumer preferences
Habitual Favourable environment for formation potty using habit, and regular emptying of potty; defecation away from home and its impact on habit formation Existing habits for disposal of child faeces; outcome expectations: What is the expected outcome of consistent potty use by the child Ease / Effectiveness of routine use of child potties, need for potty training; visible potty as cue to action for potty use