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Table 4 Application of the psychosocial dimension of the IBM-WASH framework to community-based chlorine dispensers

From: The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings


Psychosocial factors

Example for chlorine dispsenser


Leadership/advocacy; cultural identity

• Political commitment and donor driven priorities.

• Commitment and dedication of national government to promoting chlorination.


Shared values, collective efficacy, social integration, stigma

• Community commitment to practice chlorination.

• Local leadership.

• Collective efficacy for supporting and maintaining water treatment practices.


Injunctive norms, descriptive norms, aspirations, shame

• Perceived prevalence of chlorination among local and broader social network.

• Perception of the extent to which others in social network expect someone to adhere to chlorination practices.

• Aspirations related to nurture/safe motherhood and maintaining a clean and healthy child.


Self-efficacy, knowledge, perceived threat, disgust

• Knowledge of the transmission of diarrheal disease and perceived threat of associated illness.

• Disgust reaction to contaminated drinking water.

• Self-efficacy of identifying supplies, taking necessary time, and completing necessary steps to maintain clean water.


Existing habitual behaviours, outcome expectations

• Existing water treatment practices (boiling, traditional filters).

• Expectation for chlorination (taste, colour, smell).