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Table 3 The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH)

From: The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings

Levels Contextual factors Psychosocial factors Technology factors
Societal/Structural Policy and regulations, climate and geography Leadership/advocacy, cultural identity Manufacturing, financing, and distribution of the product; current and past national policies and promotion of products
Community Access to markets, access to resources, built and physical environment Shared values, collective efficacy, social integration, stigma Location, access, availability, individual vs. collective ownership/access, and maintenance of the product
Interpersonal/Household Roles and responsibilities, household structure, division of labour, available space Injunctive norms, descriptive norms, aspirations, shame, nurture Sharing of access to product, modelling/demonstration of use of product
Individual Wealth, age, education, gender, livelihoods/employment Self-efficacy, knowledge, disgust, perceived threat Perceived cost, value, convenience, and other strengths and weaknesses of the product
Habitual Favourable environment for habit formation, opportunity for and barriers to repetition of behaviour Existing water and sanitation habits, outcome expectations Ease/Effectiveness of routine use of product