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Table 4 Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of risk to progression to another state by risk factors, stepwise logistic regression (backwards elimination, significance level = 0.2)

From: Risk equations for the development of worsened glucose status and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Swedish intervention program

Risk factors
From state A to state B Sex Age Education Triglyceride Blood pressure BMI Smoking Physical activity Snus 5 a day Marital status Family history
Reference (non-exposure) Male 30 years High Normal Normal Under-weight/normal Never Physically active No current use At least 5 a day Married or living with spouse No Parents and/or siblings with T2D
NGT to IFG 0.75a (0.67-0.84) 1.01a (>1.00-1.02) 1.11a (1.03-1.21) 1.17a (1.02-1.33) 1.12 (0.99-1.28) 1.17a (1.03-1.27) 1.26a (1.18-1.35) n.a. 0.92 (0.82-1.03) n.a. n.a. 1.21a (1.07-1.36)
n = 15 473
NGT to IGT 1.67a (1.41-1.97) 1.06a (1.05-1.07) 1.10 (0.98-1.23) 1.50a (1.24-1.81) 1.40a (1.18-1.67) 1.24a (1.11-1.39) 0.89a (0.80-0.98) 1.16a (>1.00-1.33) n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.16 (0.98-1.38)
n = 15 473
NGT to IFG&IGT 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 1.04a (1.03-1.06) n.a. 1.22 (0.94-1.58) 1.83a (1.44-2.32) 1.66a (1.41-1.94) n.a. 1.16 (0.95-1.42) 0.79 (0.59-1.05) 0.72 (0.52- > 1.00) n.a. 1.37a (1.11-1.69)
n = 15 473
IFG to T2D 0.65a (0.45-0.92) 1.05a (1.02-1.09) n.a. 1.35 (0.95-1.93) 1.85a (1.29-2.64) 1.78a (1.39-2.27) n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.58 (0.82-3.05) 1.43 (0.93-2.20) 1.66 (0.83-3.33)
n = 1 299
IGT to T2D 0.47a (0.28-0.80) 1.08a (1.03-1.13) n.a. 1.76a (1.04-2.98) 1.42 (0.83-2.40) 1.65a (1.14-2.38) n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.39 (0.81-7.10) n.a. n.a.
n = 460
IFG&IGT to T2D 0.54 (0.24-1.23) n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.04a (1.20-3.45) 1.52 (0.88-2.63) n.a. n.a. 0.35 (0.08-1.43) n.a. 2.40 (0.98-5.87)
n = 120
  1. a Statistically significant (5% significance level, Wald-test).
  2. Sex (1 = male, 2 = female), Education (1 = high, 2 = middle, 3 = low), Perceived health (1 = very good, pretty good, 2 = somewhat good, pretty bad, bad), Triglyceride (0 = normal (TG ≤ 1.69 mmol/l), 1 = high (TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/l)), Blood pressure (0 = normal (systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg and no self-reported anti-hypertensive drug), 1 = self-reported anti-hypertensive drug OR systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg OR diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg), BMI (1 = underweight/normal (≤ 25), 2 = overweight (25–29.9), 3 = obese/severely obese (≥ 30)), Smoking (1 = never, 2 = formerly, 3 = present), Physical activity (0 = physically active (exercise at least 2–3 times/week or walk and/or cycle more than 3 times/week during leisure time or walk or cycle to work more than 5 km per way), 1 = moderately active (do exercise now and then but not regularly or cycle and/or walk during their leisure time at least 2–3 times per week or cycle and/or walk to work 2–5 km each way), 2 = sedentary (never exercise or walk and/or cycle during their leisure time less than 2–3 times per week or take bus or car to work or cycle and/or walk to work less than 2 km per way), Snus (1 = no current use, 2 = maximal 4 cans/week, 3 = more than 4 cans/week), Alcohol (0 = no risk of harmful alcohol consumption, 1 = risk of harmful alcohol consumption), 5 a day (1 = at least five portions of fruits or vegetables per day, at 2 = less than five portions of fruits or vegetables per day), Marital status (1 = married or living with spouse, 2 = single or widowed or divorced), Family history (1 = no parents and/or siblings with T2D, 2 = parents and siblings with T2D).
  3. n.a. = variable was removed from logistic regression by backward elimination.