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Table 3 Regression analysis summary for smoking status and fruit & vegetable consumption with %HbA1c levels

From: Influence of smoking and diet on glycated haemoglobin and 'pre-diabetes’ categorisation: a cross-sectional analysis

a) Non-diabetics (HbA1c < 6.5%) (n = 5425) Coef* SE p-value
Smoking status 0.027 0.004 <0.001
# cigarettes/day 0.047 0.005 <0.001
Vegetable intake -0.009 0.004 0.008
Fruit intake 0.001 0.003 0.754
Fruit & vegetable intake -0.002 0.002 0.236
b) High risk of diabetes (HbA1c 5.7%-6.4) (n = 1391)    
Smoking status 0.050 0.004 0.201
# cigarettes/day 0.010 0.005 0.060
Vegetable intake 0.001 0.004 0.947
Fruit intake 0.004 0.003 0.170
Fruit & vegetable intake 0.002 0.002 0.292
c) Low risk of diabetes (HbA1c < 5.7%) (n = 4155)    
Smoking status 0.017 0.003 <0.001
# cigarettes/day 0.031 0.005 <0.001
Vegetable intake -0.005 0.003 0.092
Fruit intake 0.001 0.002 0.603
Fruit & vegetable intake -0.001 0.002 0.605
c) Low risk of diabetes(HbA1c < 5.7%) & CRP < 28.5 nmol/L (n = 3172)    
Smoking status 0.014 0.004 <0.001
# cigarettes/day 0.029 0.005 <0.001
Vegetable intake -0.009 0.004 0.021
Fruit intake 0.002 0.003 0.546
Fruit & vegetable intake -0.001 0.002 0.464
  1. *adjusted for age, sex, ethnic group, social class, physical activity level, CRP, BMI, waist circumference & year of study; adjusted for #cigarettes/day.