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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the population in total and according to smoking status

From: Influence of smoking and diet on glycated haemoglobin and 'pre-diabetes’ categorisation: a cross-sectional analysis

   Smoking status
  All (n = 6120) Non-smokers (n = 2831) Ex-smokers (n = 1832) Current smokers (n = 1457)
Age (years) 50.5 ± 16.9 (18.0-95.0) 49.0 ± 17.2 (18–95) 56.2 ± 16.0 (19–94)* 46.1 ± 15.3 (18–91)*
Sex (% Male) 45.2 42.6 49.0* 45.4*
Social class (% High) 43.2 50.6 44.2* 27.7*
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.3 ± 4.8 (13.3-62.7) 27.3 ± 4.8 (15.2-53.3) 27.8 ± 4.5 (13.3-54.5)* 26.4 ± 5.1 (15.1-62.7)*
Waist circumference (mm) 91.6 ± 13.2 (54–152) 90.5 ± 13.2 (54–152) 93.8 ± 13.0 (60–152)* 89.8 ± 13.4 (58.5-147)
Physical activity (%Low) 30.7 28.1 33.7* 32.1*
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 (2.8-6.4) 5.3 ± 0.4 (2.8-6.4) 5.4 ± 0.4 (3.8-6.4)* 5.4 ± 0.4 (2.9-6.4)*
(mmol/mol) 36 ± 4.4 (30.6-46) 34 ± 4.4 (30.6-46) 36 ± 4.4 (18–46) 36 ± 4.4 (31.7-46)
CRP (nmol/L) 33.3 ± 65.7 (1.9-971) 27.6 ± 55.2 (1.9-971) 36.2 ± 75.2 (1.9-95.4)* 40.9 ± 68.6 (1.9-762)*
Total fruit portions/d 2.0 ± 1.8 (0.0-20.0) 2.3 ± 1.8 (0.0-12.5) 2.2 ± 1.8 (0.0-10.5) 1.3 ± 1.7 (0.0-22.0)*
Total vegetable portions/d 1.3 ± 1.4 (0.0-22.0) 1.4 ± 1.3 (0.0-20.0) 1.4 ± 1.3 (0.0-15.3) 1.1 ± 1.3 (0.0-17.7)*
Total fruit & vegetable portions/d 3.4 ± 2.5 (0.0-31.4) 3.7 ± 2.4 (0.0-22.5) 3.6 ± 2.4 (0.0-25.3) 2.5 ± 2.4 (0.0-31.4)*
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD (range) High social class: Professional and managerial technical; * compared to non-smokers; p < 0.05.