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Table 4 Percentage of subjects (n = 502) who reported poor or fair health status and median SF-12 scores according to the main variables considered

From: Use of different subjective health indicators to assess health inequalities in an urban immigrant population in north-western Italy: a cross-sectional study

Variable Level N/total (%) of poor SRH χ2(p) PCS-12 median score (IQR) Non parametric test (p) MCS-12 median score (IQR) Non parametric test (p)
Sex Male 25/275 (9.1) 17.23 (<0.001) 52.7 (46.8-56.6) 3.88a (<0.001) 47.5 (38.6-54.1) 0.75a (0.45)
Female 52/227 (22.9) 49.9 (41.5-55.3) 47.2 (37.6-54.0)
Age-class, years 18-24 11/105 (10.5) 31.60 (<0.001) 55.0 (49.0-56.6) 39.33b (<0.001) 47.1 (36.7-55.1) 5.05b (0.28)
25-34 19/174 (10.9) 51.9 (44.6-56.6) 47.0 (38.3-52.8)
35-44 10/105 (9.5) 51.9 (45.9-56.0) 46.6 (40.4-54.0)
45-54 20/70 (28.6) 47.8 (40.7-52.2) 48.6 (39.9-54.2)
55+ 17/48 (35.4) 45.8 (36.3-53.5) 50.9 (41.0-56.0)
Marital status Never married/divorced/widowed 35/279 (12.5) 3.31 (0.07) 52.8 (45.9-56.6) 3.80a (<0.001) 46.2 (36.9-53.0) 2.16a (0.03)
Married/cohabiting 42/223 (18.8) 50.5 (42.9-54.8) 48.6 (41.1-55.0)
Schooling Middle school or lower 21/149 (14.1) 0.14 (0.71) 50.6 (41.3-55.2) 2.22a (0.03) 47.1 (37.1-54.1) 0.19a (0.85)
High school or higher 56/353 (15.9) 52.0 (44.7-56.3) 47.5 (38.4-53.9)
HDI quartile of birth country Low 22/121 (18.2) 9.99 (0.02) 51.8 (43.4-56.2) 5.84b (0.12) 45.8 (35.9-52.6) 5.77b (0.12)
Medium 13/120 (10.8) 52.2 (43.0-55.7) 46.8 (39.3-53.9)
High 41/219 (18.7) 50.9 (44.1-55.6) 47.8 (38.6-54.9)
Very high 1/42 (2.4) 53.1 (50.7-55.8)c 49.4 (43.5-53.7)
Reason for migration Study 15/127 (11.8) 4.58 (0.10) 55.3 (49.1-57.1) 31.25b (<0.001) 44.9 (36.6-52.0) 7.60b (0.06)
Work 48/257 (18.7) 49.8 (41.6-54.9) 47.2 (39.3-54.0)
Family 12/98 (12.2) 52.8 (44.3-56.3) 50.0 (39.1-55.9)
Religious 2/20 (10.0) 50.5 (43.5-54.9) 50.3 (42.0-56.4)
Duration of residence, years < 10 37/296 (12.5) 3.96 (0.05) 52.7 (45.5-56.6) 3.39a (<0.001) 47.3 (37.9-53.6) 0.58a (0.57)
≥ 10 40/206 (19.4) 49.8 (42.9-55.2) 47.3 (39.2-54.7)
Current smoking Non-smoker 65/398 (16.3) 1.11 (0.29) 51.6 (43.5-55.8) 1.28a (0.20) 47.1 (38.3-54.0) 0.36a (0.72)
Smoker 12/104 (11.5) 52.6 (45.2-56.4) 48.0 (38.0-54.3)
Alcohol consumption, drinks per day ≤ 1 71/461 (15.4) 0.02 (0.90) 51.5 (43.5-55.8) 1.94a (0.05) 47.5 (38.3-54.3) 1.14a (0.25)
> 1 6/41 (14.6) 53.2 (49.3-57.0) 45.9 (40.2-52.1)
BMI, kg/m2 < 25 37/337 (11.0) 14.00 (<0.001) 52.2 (45.6-56.2) 3.02a (<0.01) 47.1 (38.6-54.0) 0.28a (0.78)
≥ 25 40/165 (24.2) 49.8 (41.3-55.5) 47.7 (38.0-54.1)
Medical conditions None 27/342 (7.9) 44.01 (<0.001) 53.5 (48.1-56.6) 8.03a (<0.001) 47.7 (39.7-55.0) 2.11a (0.03)
  At least 1 50/160 (31.3)   45.5 (38.7-52.1)   45.7 (37.3-52.8)  
  1. a: z-value of Mann–Whitney U test; b: χ2 value of Kruskal-Wallis test.