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Table 4 Correlates of financial catastrophe among households

From: Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India

Independent variables* Odds ratio (95%CI) for incurring financial catastrophe at different thresholds
5% 10% 15% 20%
Poorest/first quintile 3.7 (2.8, 5) 3.7 (2.6, 5.3) 7.8 (4.5, 14.5) 47 (12.2, 397.2)
(Least poor/fifth quintile) p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05**
Below poverty line card holders 1.5 (1.1, 2) 1.9 (1.4, 2.6) 2.3 (1.6, 3.3) 2.7 (1.8, 4)
(Above poverty line card holders) p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05
Government sector*** 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 1 (0.8, 1.3) 1.2 (0.9, 1.7) 1.4 (1, 2)
(Private sector) p=0.44 p=0.89 p=0.16 p=0.05
Super-specialty hospitals 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) 2.1 (1.6, 2.8) 2.3 (1.7, 3.2) 2.3 (1.6, 3.4)
(Clinics/Health centres) p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05
Referral hospitals 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 1.5 (1.2, 1.9) 1.6 (1.7, 3.2) 1.5 (1.1, 2.1)
(Clinics/Health centres) p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05
Households with four or less members 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) 1.8 (1.5, 2.2) 2.2 (1.7, 2.8) 2.2 (1.7, 2.9)
(Households with more than four members) p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05 p<0.05
  1. *Comparator is provided in the bracket. **Fisher exact p value. ***173 households whose members exhibited mixed health seeking behavior (i.e. using government as well as private sector as place for consultation) were dropped from the analysis.
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