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Table 3 Associated factors of IFG, IGT, and diabetes in multinomial logistic regression analysis

From: Prevalence and correlates of hyperglycemia in a rural population, Vietnam: implications from a cross–sectional study

Variables IFG (n= 248) IGT and IGT−IFG (n= 163) Diabetes (n= 100)
  OR (95%CI) p OR (95%CI) p OR p
Sex       
 Women 1   1   1  
 Men 0.60 (0.32−1.15) 0.122 1.09 (0.51−2.33) 0.819 1.65 (0.70−3.92) 0.253
Age (year) 1.02 (0.99−1.05) 0.057 1.01 (0.98−1.04) 0.590 1.04 (1.00−1.08) 0.076
Blood pressure       
 Normal 1   1   1  
 High 1.66 (1.24−2.24) 0.001 1.68 (1.18−2.40) 0.004 1.71 (1.10−2.67) 0.018
BMI (kg/m2) 0.95 (0.89−1.03) 0.202 1.03 (0.95−1.12) 0.479 1.05 (0.95−1.16) 0.371
Body fat (%) 0.99 (0.95−1.03) 0.493 1.03 (0.99−1.08) 0.162 1.03 (0.98−1.10) 0.252
Waist-hip ratio
(per SD=0.07)
1.21 (1.01−1.46) 0.048 1.21 (0.97−1.52) 0.094 1.47 (1.14−1.90) 0.003
Family history of diabetes       
 No 1   1   1  
 Yes 1.44 (0.73−2.82) 0.290 2.00 (0.98−4.06) 0.056 4.24 (2.10−8.57) <0.0001
Marital status       
 Married 1   1   1  
 Never 1.96 (0.83−4.63) 0.126 2.69 (1.05−6.86) 0.039 2.26 (0.64−7.99) 0.207
 Widowed 1.30 (0.74−2.27) 0.357 0.96 (0.46−2.02) 0.921 1.66 (0.71−3.88) 0.240
 Others 0.95 (0.28−3.17) 0.930 1.02 (0.24−4.43) 0.977 1.06 (0.14−8.08) 0.958
Education level       
 Elementary 1   1   1  
 Intermediate 1.43 (0.86−2.37) 0.172 0.62 (0.37−1.04) 0.069 1.01 (0.45−2.24) 0.986
 Secondary 1.16 (0.61−2.24) 0.649 0.68 (0.34−1.36) 0.270 1.53 (0.59−4.00) 0.385
 Post–secondary 1.09 (0.55−2.19) 0.803 0.60 (0.29−1.27) 0.182 1.18 (0.44−3.21) 0.742
Residence       
 Rural 1   1   1  
 Urban 3.00 (1.83−4.90) <0.0001 3.22 (1.85−5.60) <0.0001 1.53 (0.70−3.34) 0.289
Heavy occupation       
 Yes 1   1   1  
 No 0.86 (0.55−1.34) 0.504 1.17 (0.71−1.92) 0.538 1.41 (0.79−2.51) 0.251
Income level       
 < 25 percentiles 1   1   1  
 25–<50 percentiles 1.17 (0.78−1.73) 0.449 1.69 (1.06−2.70) 0.028 0.85 (0.46−1.58) 0.605
 50–<75 percentiles 1.18 (0.79−1.77) 0.427 0.97 (0.57−1.65) 0.899 0.86 (0.46−1.60) 0.629
 ≥75 percentiles 1.34 (0.89−2.01) 0.163 1.00 (0.59−1.70) 0.994 0.74 (0.40−1.39) 0.353
Alcohol consumption       
 None 1   1   1  
 <1 drink/mo 1.28 (0.72−2.29) 0.398 1.24 (0.61−2.50) 0.555 1.13 (0.46−2.78) 0.794
 ≥ 1 drink/mo to < 1 drink/wk 2.03 (1.15−3.61) 0.015 1.84 (0.92−3.66) 0.084 1.33 (0.53−3.35) 0.545
 1 drink/wk to ≤ 1 drink/d 2.40 (1.40−4.13) 0.001 0.88 (0.43−1.77) 0.715 0.63 (0.26−1.49) 0.292
 ≥ 2 drink/d 2.29 (1.23−4.25) 0.009 1.18 (0.57−2.45) 0.652 1.41 (0.63−3.17) 0.408
Smoking       
 None 1   1   1  
 Current smoker 0.66 (0.38−1.16) 0.145 0.96 (0.46−2.01) 0.920 0.82 (0.36−1.86) 0.638
 Ex–smoker 0.83 (0.46−1.50) 0.530 1.35 (0.65−2.81) 0.430 0.86 (0.38−1.95) 0.713
Watching TV time/day       
 ≤ 3 hours 1   1   1  
 > 3 hours 0.90 (0.46−1.76) 0.757 0.73 (0.32−1.66) 0.449 1.29 (0.60−2.78) 0.514
Siesta time/day       
 None 1   1   1  
 <30 min 1.29 (0.81−2.06) 0.281 1.06 (0.61−1.84) 0.844 1.82 (0.80−4.12) 0.154
 30–<60 min 1.08 (0.65−1.79) 0.774 0.93 (0.51−1.69) 0.812 1.43 (0.60−3.42) 0.421
 60–<90 min 1.43 (0.86−2.38) 0.164 1.26 (0.69−2.28) 0.455 1.70 (0.71−4.05) 0.234
 ≥ 90 min 1.28 (0.66−2.49) 0.473 1.63 (0.78−3.39) 0.191 2.30 (0.86−6.18) 0.098
Sitting time/day       
 ≤ 4 hours 1   1   1  
 > 4 hours 0.91 (0.67−1.23) 0.533 1.06 (0.74−1.54) 0.744 1.43 (0.91−2.26) 0.124
  1. IFG, isolated impaired fasting glucose; IGT, isolated impaired glucose tolerance; IGF−IGT, combined IFG and IGT.
  2. High blood pressure: systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg.
  3. Educational level was categorized in four groups, by number of years of schooling: elementary level (≤ 5 years), intermediate level (6–9 years), secondary level (10–12 years), and post–secondary level (> 12 years). Occupation was categorized as heavy occupation (farmer and manual worker) or none heavy occupation (office clerks, teacher, retired worker, and house worker).
  4. OR and P values were adjusted by all variables in the table.