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Table 1 Variables included in Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands (2011)

From: Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining the psychosocial aspects of living with diabetes in Dutch adults

Concept Measure or variable * Survey version
Demographics Sex†‡, age†‡, marital status†‡, ethnicity†, education†‡, current employment†‡, shift work All participants
Diabetes (clinical) Diabetes type†‡, diabetes duration†‡, current treatment regimen†‡, current blood glucose level, most recent HbA1c†‡, HbA1c target level, number of severe hypos/hypers in past year, main diabetes health professional, membership of patient organisation†‡ All participants
General health Height†‡, weight†‡, waist circumference†‡, hip circumference, presence of and medication for co-morbid conditions (including diabetes complications)†‡, number of hospitalisations in past year All participants
Health consultations Number of contacts with health professionals† in past year, cancelled appointments in past year, consultation behaviour (10 items) All participants
Self-care behaviours Diabetes Self-Care Inventory Revised (unpublished) plus Diabetes MILES – Australia smoking items†‡ All participants
Medication taking ASK-12: Adherence Starts with Knowledge 12-item version [61] All participants
Physical Activity IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form)[62], questions about sedentary behaviour adapted from Diabetes MILES - Australia All participants
Eating behaviour 38-item food frequency questionnaire All participants
Disordered eating 6 items†‡ plus 2 items with respect to insulin adapted from Diabetes MILES – Australia All participants
Alcohol consumption 1 item: number of units per week All participants
Diabetes-related distress PAID: Problem Areas In Diabetes scale [63]†‡ All participants
Depression PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale [64]†‡ All participants
Anxiety GAD-7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale [65]†‡ All participants
Type D personality DS14: Type D Scale-14 [38] All participants
Stressful life event(s) 1 item: stressful life event(s) in past year All participants
Loneliness 1 item: loneliness in past year All participants
Psychological insulin resistance ITAS: Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale [66]†‡ Module 1
Fear of hypoglycaemia HFS-II: Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey-II [67] Module 1
Diabetes-specific avoidance 6 items Module 1
Eating style DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire [68] Module 1,3
Beliefs about diabetes BIPQ: Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (diabetes version) [69]†‡ Module 1,3
Anhedonia 4-item anhedonia subscale HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [70] Module 2
Manic symptoms MDQ-NL: Mood Disorder Questionnaire [71] Module 2
Subtypes of depression IDS-SR: Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – self reported [72] Module 2
Mindfulness FFMQ-NL: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire – Dutch version [73] Module 3
Neuropathic pain NeuroQoL: Neuropathy and foot ulcer-specific Quality of Life questionnaire (physical symptom measures only) [74] Module 3,4
Positive mental health MHC-SF: Mental Health Continuum - Short Form (emotional and psychological subscales only) [75] Module 3
Sleep PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [76] Module 4
Fatigue FAS: Fatigue Assessment Scale [77] Module 4
Daytime sleepiness ESS: Epworth Sleepiness Scale [78] Module 4
Social support MSPSS: Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support [79] Module 5
Relationship adjustment DAS: Dyadic Adjustment Scale [80] Module 5
Sexual problems SSFS: Short Sexual Functioning Scale – male and female version (Enzlin et al., unpublished) Module 5
  1. * Unless otherwise specified, the question(s) was/were designed by the Diabetes MILES – The Netherlands research team.
  2. † Diabetes MILES Study core measures, to be included in all surveys of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  3. ‡ Measures present in the pooled Australian-Dutch data-set.