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Table 3 Selected baseline characteristics of the sample by treatment group

From: Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT): a randomized controlled study

  Black Brown Green Orange Red Violet Total
Maternal characteristics       
Mean age ±SD 26.2 ± 4.4 26.0 ± 4.6 26.0 ± 4.4 26.4 ±4.7 26.0 ±4.5 26.2 ±4.7 26.2 ± 4.6
Age at first married 21.8 ± 3.3 21.7 ± 3.3 21.8 ± 3.3 21.8 ±3.3 21.8 ±3.3 21.8 ±3.3 21.8 ± 3.3
Minority ethnic (%) 50.2 49.5 49.5 49.2 49.0 49.6 49.5
Education level (%)        
Primary school 8.5 6.5 7.4 8.6 9.1 9.4 8.2
Secondary school 55.3 56.2 57.7 53.1 51.6 54.3 54.7
High school 24.5 25.9 22.4 26.8 27.6 23.2 25.1
College or higher 11.6 11.4 12.6 11.5 11.7 13.1 12.0
Work as farmers 80.2 81.5 78.9 81.6 80.8 80.6 80.6
Obstetric history        
Number of children        
0 9.4 11.8 12.6 10.9 10.5 11.9 9.4
1 88.1 84.9 84.7 85.0 85.8 84.9 88.1
≥2 2.5 3.4 2.8 4.1 3.7 3.1 2.5
Last pregnancy experiences       
Prenatal check up 90.6 92.3 88.9 89.2 88.6 90.6 90.0
Taking IFA or MM 75.71 80.2 77.4 78.2 75.6 80.8 78.0
C-section 13.8 14.6 15.1 15.5 16.5 14.5 15.0
LBW (<2500 g) 7.2 7.1 8.1 9.9 8.6 8.7 8.3
Premature delivery 8.0 7.9 10.4 9.7 10.7 9.3 9.3
Anthropometric measurements       
Height 152.4 ±5.0 152.8 ±5.3 152.6 ±5.2 152.4 ±5.0 152.4 ±5.2 152.4 ±5.2 152.5 ±5.2
Weight 45.7 ± 5.3 45.7 ± 5.6 45.6 ± 5.5 45.4 ±5.3 45.7 ±5.9 45.5 ±5.7 45.6 ± 5.5
BMI 19.6 ± 2.0 19.6 ± 2.1 19.5 ± 2.0 19.5 ±2.0 19.7 ±2.1 19.6 ±2.1 19.6 ± 2.0
BMI<18.5 (%) 30.5 31.1 33.1 30.3 31.3 31.9 31.4
MUAC 24.5 ± 2.2 24.5 ± 2.3 24.5 ± 2.2 24.5 ±2.2 24.6 ±2.4 24.4 ±2.3 24.5 ± 2.3
Triceps skin fold 15.8 ± 5.1 15.7 ± 5.1 15.9 ± 4.9 15.8 ±5.0 16.2 ±5.1 15.9 ±5.0 15.9 ± 5.0
Subscapular skinfold 14.5 ± 5.0 14.5 ± 5.3 14.5 ± 4.8 14.3 ±5.2 14.8 ±5.3 14.5 ±5.1 14.5 ± 5.1
Calf circumference 31.9 ± 2.1 31.8 ± 2.3 31.8 ± 2.2 31.8 ±2.1 31.9 ±2.3 31.7 ±2.2 31.8 ± 2.2
Hematological indicators       
Hemoglobin 13.0 ± 1.4 12.9 ± 1.4 12.9 ± 1.3 12.9 ±1.4 13.0 ±1.4 13.0 ±1.3 12.9 ± 1.4
Anemia (%) 19.7 21.0 19.3 20.4 20.0 18.1 19.7