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Table 3 Selected indicators and targets for NCD prevention and control in national health policies/plan and in NCD specific plans: Poor alignment and poor selection of indicators

From: A qualitative study of governance of evolving response to non-communicable diseases in low-and middle- income countries: current status, risks and options

Country Sector-wide health plan/Policy NCD-specific plan/policy Baseline levels
Cambodia Reduce between baseline (2005-08) and 2015, Sample indicators to monitor progress mentioned, but no targets specified. ■ Average baseline given for 2005-2008 ([13]; data from existing literature summarized in NCD-specific plan
■ the adults smoking prevalence% (male/female) from 54/9 to 44/2 ■ Proposes monitoring through national STEP surveys
■ Incidence of hypertension per 1000 population from 20 to 15
■ Prevalence of adults with diabetes reported from public facilities from 2 to <2
■ Incidence of cervical cancer per 10,000 population reported from public facilities from 25 to 12.5 [13]
Fiji [[14],[15]] By 2015, reduce prevalence of By 2014, reduce prevalence of ■ Baseline from National NCD STEPS Survey 2002, no progress reported from prior National NCD Strategic Plan 2004-2008
■ Diabetes (25-64 yr) from 16% to 14% ■ Diabetes by 5% ■ Proposes monitoring through National NCD STEPS Survey and National Nutrition Survey.
■ Alcohol related injuries to less than 5% ■ Common risk factors by 5% ■ No periodicity/monitoring agency defined.
■ moderate physical activity by 5% ■ Intermediate risk factors by 5%
■ fruing/vegetable intake (Adults) by 5% ■ Major NCDs by 5%
■ Current smoking (15-65yrs) from 37% to 33% ■ Tobacco use: 10% from baseline
■ reduce obesity by 6.2% ■ Improve nutrition: No target
■ Increase HPV vaccine coverage by 5% ■ Alcohol related harm: No target
■ Cardiovascular diseases by 5%
■ Improve national NCD status by 5%
Malaysia [[16],[17]] ■ Indicators are listed as prevalence of Ischemic heart disease, mental illness, CVD, Diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive respiratory disease but with no specific targets. By 2016, Reduce Prevalence of ■ Baseline Data from National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006
■ Diabetes from 11.6 to <13.6% ■ Proposes monitoring through Behavioural Surveillance Survey, NCD Risk Factor Surveillance
■ Obesity from 26.2% to <33.7% ■ Periodicity/Monitoring agencies identified
■ Healthy Eating – no target given ■ No past progress reported
■ Physical Activity – no target given  
Mongolia[18, 19] Between 2010 and 2015, Reduce prevalence of Between 2009 and 2013, Reduce prevalence of ■ Some baseline data given from 2004-2005
■ Daily Smoking from 37% to 31% ■ Smoking from 23.4% to 20.4% ■ Mechanism to collect data and its periodicity not defined
■ Daily salt intake (gm/day) from 13g to 12g ■ Daily salt intake (gm/day) from 9.6 to 9.1 ■ No achievements or rate of progress described in the immediate past to inform the current target setting
■ Increase the percentage of adult population that reduce alcohol intake to 2-3 std /wk from 30% to 40% ■ Alcohol use among population (last month) from 29% to 27%
■ Increase population doing fitness activities at least 3 times/wk from 20% to 25% ■ Increase in population with active life-style on regular basis with minimum of 30 minutes from 18.4% to 23.4%
Philippines[20, 22] Between 2006 & 2010, reduce prevalence% of This is an operation manual. Indicators to be monitored are outlined but no quantified national targets for these indicators are given Some baseline data 2000/2003
■ Obesity from 4.3 to 3 Proposes Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System including Adult
■ Smoking from 34.8 to <34.8 National Nutrition and Health Survey to monitor the progress.
■ Alcohol from 46 to <46 No reporting of past progress
■ Inactivity from 60.5% to 50.8%
By 2010, reduce mortality rates (per 100 000) to less than the baseline level in 2006 for
■ CVD < 79.1
■ COPD<63.2
■ Diabetes <20.8
■ Cancer <47.7 [22]
  1. Notes: The indicators are listed exactly in the same way as written in the respective plan/policy, however, for some countries, only selected indictors/targets and not all the indicators/targets given in a plan, are listed here for the sake of brevity.