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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) of having hearing difficulties in men and women (n=19 045)

From: Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

   Full factoriala  
Independent variable   OR (95% CI)
Age (years)   
 20-24   1
 25-34   1.40 (1.09-1.79)
 35-44   1.95 (1.53-2.47)
 45-54   3.00 (2.37-3.81)
 55-64   4.63 (3.66-5.85)
SES   
 Professional work level   1
 Intermediate non-manual work level   1.33 (1.11-1.59)
 Assistant non-manual work level   1.33 (1.09-1.62)
 Self-employed non-professional work level   1.36 (1.09-1.69)
 Skilled manual work level   1.91 (1.60-2.28)
 Unskilled/semiskilled manual work level   1.93 (1.62-2.30)
 Students   1.73 (1.27-2.35)
Type of living area   
 Urban   1
 Semi-urban   1.14 (1.02-1.28)
 Sparsely populated   1.20 (1.07-1.35)
Country of birth   
 Sweden   1
 Elsewhere   0.98 (0.85-1.13)
Main income source   
 Work   1
 Unemployment benefits   1.35 (1.11-1.66)
 Sickness benefits/disability pension 1.54 (1.36-1.75)
 Other   1.02 (0.82-1.26)
Gender   
 Women   1
 Men   1.44 (1.31-1.59)
  1. aIncluded independent variables are age (categorical), socio-economic status (SES), type of living area, country of birth, main income source, and gender.