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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) of having hearing difficulties in women (n=9 758)

From: Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

   Model 1: Crudea   Model 2: Age-adjusteda   Model 3: Age- and SES-adjusteda   Model 4: Full factoriala,b
Independent variable   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)
Age (years)         
 20-24   1     1   1
 25-34   1.03 (0.73-1.46)     1.22 (0.86-1.74)   1.19 (0.83-1.70)
 35-44   1.42 (1.03-1.97)     1.73 (1.23-2.43)   1.58 (1.12-2.23)
 45-54   2.47 (1.81-3.37)     3.01 (2.15-4.20)   2.63 (1.87-3.70)
 55-64   3.05 (2.24-4.15)     3.64 (2.61-5.08)   2.99 (2.13-4.20)
SES         
 Professional work level   1   1     1
 Intermediate non-manual work level   1.31 (1.00-1.72)   1.30 (0.99-1.71)     1.26 (0.96-1.65)
 Assistant non-manual work level   1.54 (1.17-2.04)   1.48 (1.12-1.95)     1.35 (1.02-1.79)
 Self-employed non-professional work level   1.17 (0.78-1.76)   1.06 (0.71-1.60)     1.04 (0.69-1.57)
 Skilled manual work level   1.72 (1.30-2.28)   1.76 (1.33-2.34)     1.58 (1.19-2.12)
 Unskilled/semiskilled manual work level   2.12 (1.63-2.74)   2.20 (1.70-2.86)     1.88 (1.43-2.45)
 Students   1.01 (0.69-1.46)   1.82 (1.22-2.70)     1.71 (1.12-2.61)
Type of living area         
 Urban   1   1   1   1
 Semi-urban   1.23 (1.05-1.45)   1.18 (1.00-1.40)   1.11 (0.94-1.31)   1.09 (0.92-1.29)
 Sparsely populated   1.46 (1.24-1.73)   1.35 (1.14-1.59)   1.21 (1.01-1.43)   1.18 (0.99-1.40)
Country of birth         
 Sweden   1   1   1   1
 Elsewhere   1.08 (0.89-1.32)   1.08 (0.89-1.32)   1.01 (0.83-1.24)   1.00 (0.82-1.23)
Main income source         
 Work   1   1   1   1
 Unemployment benefits   1.72 (1.28-2.32)   1.74 (1.28-2.35)   1.59 (1.17-2.16)   1.58 (1.16-2.14)
 Sickness benefits/disability pension 2.37 (2.02-2.79)   1.92 (1.63-2.27)   1.73 (1.46-2.06)   1.72 (1.45-2.05)
 Other   0.74 (0.57-0.96)   1.01 (0.77-1.33)   0.95 (0.71-1.27)   0.95 (0.71-1.28)
  1. aAge included as a categorical variable. bIncluded independent variables are age, socio-economic status (SES), type of living area, country of birth, and main income source.