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Table 1 Motivation strategy conditions

From: A cluster-randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents’ physical activity and motivation during physical education lessons: the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial

Intervention arms Description Hypothesized impact on PA and SDT constructs, relative to baseline
Free Choice Equipment provided, but no instruction by the teacher took place. Higher PA levels
   Lower sedentary behavior
   Higher autonomy support from teacher (especially perceived choice)
   Higher basic need satisfaction
   Higher self-determined motivation
Providing Choice Provided options and offered opportunities for students to take initiative. Higher PA levels
   Lower sedentary behavior
   Higher autonomy support from teacher (especially perceived choice)
   Higher basic need satisfaction
   Higher self-determined motivation
Relevance Provided rationale and explained relevance of activities Higher PA levels
   Lower sedentary behavior
   Higher autonomy support from teacher (especially perceived relevance)
   Higher basic need satisfaction
   Higher self-determined motivation
Usual practice No intervention. Lesson activities conducted without researcher-directed teaching strategies No change in PA levels
   No change in sedentary behavior
   No change in basic need satisfaction
   No change in self-determined motivation
  1. Note: PA = physical activity, SDT = Self-Determination Theory.