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Table 3 Socio demographic characteristics of the diarrhea cases infected by the two vibrio species in the study area, 2007–2010

From: Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

Variables V. parahaemolyticus V. Cholerae
Case (n=136) NonCase (n=54,383) p-value* Case (n=284) NonCase (n=54,235) p-value*
Mean (SD) age (years) 29.49 (18.23) 29.80 (18.32) 0.80 20.60 (19.54) 29.85 (18.30) <.01
No. (%) of children aged less than 5 years 14 (10.29) 3,456 (6.35) 0.06 79 (27.82) 3,391 (6.25) <.01
No. (%) of males 68 (50.00) 29,095 (53.50) 0.48 152 (53.52) 29,011 (53.49) 0.91
No. (%) of Hindus 100 (73.53) 34,621 (63.66) 0.02 126 (44.37) 34,595 (63.79) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household with literate household head 99 (72.79) 39,511 (72.65) 0.94 176 (61.97) 39,434 (72.71) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household with household head having more than 5 years of schooling 75 (55.15) 30,136 (55.41) 0.85 131 (46.13) 30,080 (55.46) 0.07
No. (%) of individuals living in a household with important economic contributor having stable occupation1) 27 (19.85) 12,444 (22.88) 0.45 38 (13.38) 12,433 (22.92) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household using safe toilet2) 12 (9.16) 5,002 (9.34) 0.94 8 (3.09) 5,006 (9.37) 0.02
No. (%) of individuals living in a household using safe water source (tap at household level) 14 (10.29) 8,825 (16.23) 0.09 24 (8.45) 8,815 (16.25) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household using safe water source (tap or hand pump at household level) 14 (10.29) 8,898 (16.36) 0.09 24 (8.45) 8,888 (16.39) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household using boiled or filtered water 6 (4.41) 6,144 (11.30) 0.01 15 (5.28) 6,135 (11.31) 0.03
No. (%) of individuals living in a household always wash hands with soap and water after defecation 91 (66.91) 37,880 (69.65) 0.56 167 (58.80) 37,804 (69.70) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household having specific place for waste disposal 133 (97.79) 52,855 (97.25) 0.80 274 (96.48) 52,714 (97.26) 0.28
No. (%) of individuals living in their own house 46 (33.82) 18,654 (34.31) 0.96 62 (21.83) 18,638 (34.37) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning refrigerator 25 (18.38) 11,472 (21.09) 0.48 27 (9.51) 11,470 (21.15) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning motorbike 8 (5.88) 3,943 (7.25) 0.52 11 (3.87) 3,940 (7.26) 0.14
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning telephone 23 (16.91) 11,644 (21.41) 0.20 24 (8.45) 11,643 (21.47) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning television 94 (69.12) 39,674 (72.95) 0.31 177 (62.32) 39,591 (73.00) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning all luxury items3) 4 (2.94) 2,562 (4.71) 0.32 3 (1.06) 2,563 (4.73) 0.01
No. (%) of individuals living in a household owning at least one luxury item3) 94 (69.12) 40,221 (73.96) 0.20 180 (63.38) 40,135 (74.00) <.01
Mean (SD) monthly household expenditure (Indian Rupee) 3155.64 (1462.8) 3822.67 (5753.7) <.01 3233.93 (1816.5) 3824.10 (5760.5) <.01
No. (%) of individuals with high monthly household expenditure4) 43 (32.33) 24,306 (45.36) <.01 88 (31.43) 24,261 (45.40) <.01
Mean (SD) monthly per-capita expenditure5) of house hold (Indian Rupee) 540.79 (273.90) 675.16 (1817.8) <.01 495.57 (305.13) 675.77 (1820.2) <.01
No. (%) of individuals having high monthly per-capita expenditure4) of household 49 (36.84) 25,689 (47.94) 0.02 85 (30.36) 25,653 (48.00) <.01
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) of the household size 6.79 (3.54) 6.90 (3.78) 0.78 7.72 (4.15) 6.89 (3.77) 0.01
Mean (SD) distance (m) from household to the nearest health clinic 173.40 (107.00) 179.91 (103.46) 0.60 145.99 (77.90) 180.07 (103.56) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in household longer distance to the nearest health clinic6) 61 (44.85) 27,193 (50.00) 0.39 82 (28.87) 27,172 (50.10) <.01
Mean (SD) distance (m) from household to the nearest water body 106.31 (57.79) 101.71 (57.98) 0.32 117.64 (59.21) 101.64 (57.96) <.01
No. (%) of individuals living in household longer distance to the nearest water body 7) 74 (54.41) 27,184 (49.99) 0.35 170 (59.86) 27,088 (49.95) 0.02
No. (%) of individuals living in Ward 33 46 (33.82) 14,668 (26.97) 0.10 57 (20.07) 14,657 (27.02) 0.05
  1. * The p-values were derived by comparing the differences between the two groups adjusted for cluster effects using GEE with the logit link function.
  2. 1) Stable occupation: professional, service, shop owner, or farm owner.
  3. 2) Safe toilet: use of own (non-shared) flush toilet.
  4. 3) Luxury items: Refrigerator, motorbike, telephone, and/or television.
  5. 4) High (household/per-capita household) expenditure: more than the median household/per-capita household expenditure; median derived using the vaccinated population [0: low expenditure; 1: high expenditure].
  6. 5) Per-capita monthly expenditure: calculated from total household expenditure divided by the number of active members in the household prior to vaccination (1USD = 45 Indian Rupees).
  7. 6) Longer distance to the nearest health clinic: more than the median distance to the nearest health clinic; median derived using the vaccinated population [0: close to the nearest health clinic; 1: long distance to the nearest health clinic].
  8. 7) Longer distance to the nearest water body: more than the median distance to the nearest water body; median derived using the vaccinated population [0: close to the nearest water body; 1: long distance to the nearest water body].