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Table 1 Percentages or means and standard deviations of the variables at the 9-year follow-up of the African American Health cohort in 2010 (N = 582 unless otherwise noted) 1

From: Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort

Variable Percentage Mean Standard Deviation
Focal Variable
Segregated Schooling
≥ 50% of Grades 1-12 40.2   
1-49% of Grades 1-12 11.1   
No Segregated Schooling of Grades 1-12 48.5   
Regional Schooling Effects
Majority of Schooling Occurred in the …
Southern States 28.6   
Missouri 66.2   
Other States 5.2   
Demographics, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Status
Age (in years, 58–74)   65.8 4.5
Men (vs. women) 42.8   
Marital Status
Divorced or Separated 27.7   
Widowed 18.5   
Never Married 10.0   
Married 44.8   
Educational Attainment
Grade School 6.2   
High School 48.9   
College 44.8   
Employment Status
Working for Pay 29.5   
Disabled 14.8   
Retired 55.7   
Annual Household Income < $25 K 42.9   
Self-Rated Health (1 = poor, …, 5 = excellent)   2.82 1.0
Racial Consciousness, African American Community Responsibility, and Perceived Discrimination
Constantly Thinks About One’s Race (1 = yes, 0 = no) 36.4   
Responsible to Move the African American Community Forward (1 = strongly disagree, …, 4 = strongly agree)   3.1 0.7
Perceived Discrimination (9 = lowest, …, 36 = highest)   24.7 4.5
Resilience
Resilience (5 = lowest, …, 50 = highest)   40.6 6.4
Outcome 1
Sense of Control Scale (−16 = lowest, …, 16 = highest)   4.2 4.0
Systolic Blood Pressure (mm/hg; N = 511)   134.5 22.3
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm/hg; N = 512)   76.8 13.0
Grip Strength (kg; N = 493)   32.0 11.9
Peak Expiratory Flow (ml; N = 442)   375.5 11.9
Gait Speed (0 = lowest, …, 5 = highest; N = 462)   2.4 1.2
Chair Stands (0 = lowest, …, 5 = highest; N = 462)   2.2 1.3
Balance Tests (0 = lowest, …, 5 = highest; N = 491)   3.2 1.5
Short Portable Physical Battery (0 = lowest, …, 12 = highest; N = 462)   7.9 3.1
  1. 1Sample size varies on the physical performance measures because (a) they could not be conducted for the 55 telephone and proxy interviews, (b) clinical condition rule-out screens were tripped (e.g., excessively high blood pressure for grip strength, or respiratory infections or conditions for peak expiratory flow), or (c) inadequate space in the home existed for the safe conduct of the tests (e.g., gait speed, or chair stands).