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Table 8 Estimates and standard errors of covariates in the best fitting mixed models fitted to BMI

From: Body mass index and height over three generations: evidence from the Lifeways cross-generational cohort study

Effect Group Estimate Standard error p-value   Correlation 95% CI p-value
Model a) Fitted to all family members ‡
Child 1 19.56 1.41   Child and Mother 0.17 (0.06, 0.26) 0.0015
Mother 2 22.08 1.11   Child and MGM 0.25 (0.08, 0.42) 0.0054
Father 3 35.07 5.47   Child and MGF -0.23 (-0.43,-0.01) 0.0409
MGM 4 26.23 2.73   Mother and MGM 0.28 (0.10, 0.44) 0.0021
MGF 5 30.44 3.04   Mother and MGF 0.25 (0.01, 0.46) 0.0408
PGM 6 30.86 3.99      
PGF 7 24.65 5.13      
SRH 0 vs 1 & 2   -1.26 1.77      
Effect of age within each group         
Age*Child   -0.57 0.26 0.0294     
Age*Mother   0.04 0.03 0.16     
Age*Father   -0.23 0.13 0.0842     
Age*MGM   0.004 0.04 0.9126     
Age*MGF   -0.05 0.05 0.2572     
Age*PGM   -0.08 0.06 0.2274     
Age*PGF   0.11 0.08 0.1789     
Age*SRH (SRH = 0)   -0.08 0.04 0.0342     
Group 7 (PGF): Fruitveg 0 vs 1   -4.93 -1.67 0.0032     
Model b) Maternal line§         
SRH 0 vs 1&2   -3.33 1.23 0.0071 Child and Mother 0.18 (0.08, 0.28) 0.003
      Child and MGM 0.23 (0.06, 0.39) 0.0078
      Child and MGF -0.23 (-0.43,-0.02) 0.028
      Mother and MGM 0.29 (0.12, 0.44) 0.0009
      Mother and MGF 0.25 (-0.02, 0.41) 0.0733
Model c) Paternal line†
SRH 0 vs 1&2   -3.2 1.48 0.0308     
Group 7 (PGF): Fruitveg 0 vs 1   -4.92 1.66 0.0036     
Effect of age within each group
Age*Child   -0.55 0.26 0.0352     
Age*Father   -0.247 0.135 0.07     
Age*PGM   -0.095 0.064 0.1407     
Age*PGF   0.072 0.814 0.3742     
  1. Also shown are the significant ( p < 0.05) correlation estimates between family members.
  2. MGM: Maternal grandmother, MGF: Maternal grandfather, PGM: Paternal grandmother, PGF: Paternal grandfather
  3. § There was a negative effect of age on BMI but only borderline significance p = 0.075
  4. † Model with vs without correlation terms p < 0.05; ‡Model with vs without correlation terms p < 0.0001