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Table 9 Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and transportation walking

From: Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 78, 82, 83, 85, 86   82 5 4/5 80 ++
Street connectivity    85 1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work 63, 77 85 77 3 2/4 50 0
Access to public transport 50    1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities    52, 52, 85, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92, 92,92, 92, 92 3 0/13 0 0
Walking/cycling facilities    85, 85 1 N/A N/A N/A
Safety    63, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Traffic-related safety    85 1 N/A N/A N/A
Crime-related safety    63, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Aesthetics 63 63, 85 63, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Urbanization 84, 84    1 N/A N/A N/A
Quality of environment    77M, 77F 1 N/A N/A N/A
  1. * A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.
  2. Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.
  3. M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females.